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T polymorphism, and risk of ischemic stroke:results of a meta-analysis [J]. Neurology, 2002; 59(4):529-36. 15. Newman PE. Can reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels cause deficient DNA methylation producing mutations which initiate atherosclerosis? [J]. Med Hypotheses, 1999;53(5):421-4. 16. Zaina S, Lindholm MW, Lund G. Nutrition and aberrant DNA methylation patterns in atherosclerosis:more than just hyperhomocysteinemia? [J]. J Nutr,2005; 135(1):5-8. 17. Post WS, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ, Wilhide CC, et al. Methylation of the estrogen receptor gene is associated with aging and atherosclerosis in the cardiovascular system [J]. Cardiovasc Res,1999; 43(4):985-91. 18. Kim J, Kim JY, Song KS, et al. Epigenetic changes in estrogen receptor beta gene in atherosclerotic cardiovascular tissues and in-vitro vascular senescence [J]. Biochim Biophys Acta,2007; 1772(1):72-80. 19. Laukkanen MO, Mannermaa S, Hiltunen MO, et al. Local hypomethylation in atherosclerosis found in rabbit ec-sod gene [J]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol,1999; 19(9):2171-8. 20. Turunen MP, Aavik E, Yla-Herttuala S. Epigenetics and atherosclerosis [J]. Biochim Biophys Acta,2009; 1790(9):886-91. 21. Rodri guez-Campos A, Ruiz-Enri quez P, Faraudo S, et al. Mitogen-induced p53 downregulation precedes vascular smooth muscle cell migration from healthy tunica media and proliferation [J]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol,2001; 21(2):214-9. 22. Baccarelli A, Wright R, Bollati V, et al. Ischemic heart disease and stroke in relation to blood DNA methylation [J]. Epidemiology,2010; 21(6):819-28. 23. Kim M, Long TI, Arakawa K, et al. DNA methylation as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk [J]. PLoS One,2010; 5(3):e9692. 24. Endres M, Meisel A, Biniszkiewicz D, et al. DNA methyltransferase contributes to delayed ischemic brain injury [J]. J Neurosci,2000; 20(9):3175-81. 25. Endres M, Fan G, Meisel A, et al. Effects of cerebral ischemia in mice lacking DNA methyltransferase 1 in post-mitotic neurons [J]. Neuroreport,2001;2(17):3763-6. 26. Hu CJ, Chen SD, Yang DI, et al. Promoter region methylation and reduced expression of thrombospondin-1 after oxygen-glucose deprivation in murine cerebral endothelial cells [J]. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab,2006; 26(12):1519-26. 27. Wilson ME, Westberry JM. Regulation of oestrogen receptor gene expression: new insights and novel mechanisms [J]. J Neuroendocrinol,2009; 21(4):238-42. 28. Westberry JM, Prewitt AK, Wilson ME. Epigenetic regulation of the estrogen receptor alpha promoter in the cerebral cortex following ischemia in male and female rats [J]. Neuroscience,2008; 152(4):982-9. 29. Sunday L, Osuna C, Krause DN, et al. Age alters cerebrovascular inflammation and effects of estrogen [J]. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol,2007; 292(5):H2333-40. 30. Lee TH, Yoon JG. Intracerebral transplantation of human adipose tissue stromal cells after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats [J]. J Clin Neurosci,2008; 15(8): 907-12. 31. Klisovic RB, Stock W, Cataland S, et al. A phase I biological study of MG98, an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to DNA methyltransferase 1, in patients with high-risk myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia [J]. Clin Cancer Res,2008; 14(8):2444-9. 32. Szyf M. Epigenetics, DNA methylation, and chromatin modifying drugs [J]. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol,2009; 49:243-63. [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 神经病学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [毕建忠]山东大学第二医院神经内科 [issue] => [email] => xuyingying1987@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 毕建忠 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100204 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => bi jian zhong [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => xu ying ying [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51533 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 雌激素受体-α(ER-α);;甲基化;;缺血性脑卒中;;甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应(MSP) [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15966697945 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 徐营营 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学第二医院神经内科 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 医学院 [title_en] => Study of Relationship between DNA Methylation of Estrogen Receptor-α Gene and Ischemic Stroke [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Estrogen receptor-α(ER-α);methylation;ischemic stroke;Methylation specific PCR(MSP) [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R743.3 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => methylationspecificpcrmsp,ischemicstroke,estrogenreceptorαerα,methylation [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应msp,雌激素受体αerα,methylation,methylationspecificpcrmsp,ischemicstroke,甲基化,estrogenreceptorαerα,缺血性脑卒中 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 9a60bf2dd6d3678fd1555f0e99a85313415398356 [hints] => 2 [id] => Qatq32YBFjIhTVEb64t2 [tags] => 0 ) [2] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 棒材的计数封装是轧钢厂棒材生产和销售中的重要环节。长期以来,我国的棒材生产企业大都采用人工点支的方式对棒材进行计数。这种方法生产效率低、劳动强度高、计数误差大,不仅影响了企业的生产效率和自动化程度,而且使企业无法从允许的负公差轧制方式中获得应有的经济效益。因此,研究棒材自动计数装置对提高棒材计数的效率和精度,实现棒材生产线的自动化都具有十分重要的意义。 针对市场急需,设计了一种基于机器视觉和图像处理的棒材自动计数系统。在本系统中,数字摄像机拍摄链床上连续传送的棒材的端面图像,并将图像数据传输给工控机进行图像处理和计数。当计数值达到设定值时,发出链床停止信号,同时在图像上给出棒材分离位置,以便于工人进行分钢操作。 系统的硬件设计充分考虑了棒材生产的特定环境和图像处理的特殊要求。系统硬件主要包括数字摄像机、千兆网卡、工控机和照明系统等。使用Visual C++开发了方便、简洁的操作界面,使用SQL Sever数据库管理棒材计数数据。图像处理是本系统研制的重点和难点。本系统使用OpenCV计算机视觉函数库来对采集的图像进行处理,实现棒材计数。主要的图像处理过程有图像预处理、棒材识别和运动棒材跟踪三部分。 在图像预处理中,使用中值滤波对图像进行平滑,在消除噪声的同时保护了图像的边缘。使用最大类间方差法对图像进行分割,但由于棒材剪切工艺的限制,分割后二值图像中常出现孔洞和缝隙,从而影响了计数的准确性。为解决此问题本文采用一种新的八方向填充算法来改善图像质量,以突出目标特征。 在目标识别中,采用了一种16方向边缘检测算子来准确检测棒材边缘;然后分别使用16方向边缘聚集算法和快速多模板匹配算法来识别不同尺寸规格的棒材。在此基础上,使用欧式距离对棒材区域的像素点进行聚类、确定棒材中心、识别棒材。棒材目标识别主要解决单帧图像中的棒材计数问题。在棒材在线计数中,不仅需要解决棒材识别问题,还需对序列图像中的棒材进行匹配跟踪,这恰恰是棒材在线自动计数优于捆扎后计数的关键。本文采用基于特征的目标跟踪算法来估计序列图像中棒材水平位移,进而在目标范围内搜索匹配的棒材,实现棒材计数。 试验结果表明,所设计的棒材自动计数系统计数棒材的精度可达到99.99%,而且每帧图像的处理时间仅需0.02s,能够满足棒材生产中对自动计数问题的要求,具有较高的实用价值和较好的市场前景。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011228453.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-26 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-29 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 控制科学与工程 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => The counting and packing of steel bar is an important part of steel bar production and sale in steel rolling mills. At present, the steel bar counting mainly depends on manual way in most steel factories of China. This method is low efficiency, high labor intensity and big counting error. It not only reduces the production efficiency and automation of manufacture factories, but also affects enterprise economic benefit since the enterprise could not obtain relevant economic benefit from allowed negative tolerance rolling method. So it is significant to improve counting efficiency and accuracy and realize automatic production. To meet the market requirement, an automatic steel bar counting system based on machine vision and image processing was designed. In the system, a digital camera shot the bar sections and transmitted acquired image data to the industrial computer to do image process and count. When the count reached the set value, the conveyor stop signal was sent and a separation position was indicated on image. Then the operator separated the steel bars by the separation position. Considering specific production environment and image processing requirements, the hard structure was designed and it consisted of digital camera, gigabit network card, industrial computer, lighting system and so on. The Visual C++ was used to develope a convenient and compact application interface and database SQL Sever was used to manage steel bar records. Image processing was a difficulty and emphasis in system developing. The OpenCV image processing library was called in Visual C++ to process the acquired images and realize steel bar counting. In the paper, the image processing comprised image preprocessing, target identification and target track. In the image preprocessing, median filter was used to eliminate noise and smooth the image. The Otsu method was employed to segment the image. For the limit of steel bar shearing, there may be black holes and cracks appear on binary image after image segmentation, which would lead counting error. To solve the problem, a new filling algorithm named eight directions discriminance was used to fill the holes and cracks to improve the image quality and protrude target feature. In target identification, a 16 directions edge detection operator was used to detect the bar edge exactly.16 directions edge convergence algorithm and fast template matching algorithm were used to recognize steel bars of different sizes and then Euclidean distance was used to cluster pixel points that belonged to one bar and determine the bar center. Target identification resolved the steel bar couting of single frame image. But to realized online steel bar counting, the matching and tracking of steel bars in image sequence images was essential; and this is why online counting is better than the couting of bundled bars. At last, feature-based target tracking algorithm was employed to estimate the bar horizontal displacement and track the bars. The test result shows that the precision of steel bar automatic counting system can reach 99.99% and the processing time for each frame is only 0.02s. Field use proves that the system can satisfy the requirement of auto counting and has high practical value and good market prospect. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200812375 [page] => 77 [title_cn] => 基于机器视觉的棒材自动计数系统 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]沙才智.小型钢材的负公差轧制[J].冶金丛刊,1991(3):9-13 [2]章家岩.棒材生产在线计数问题的研究[J].华中科技大学举报(自然科学版),2004,32(9):79-81. [3]徐科.棒材自动计数系统[P].中国专利:03100566.7,2003-6-18 [4]章家岩,金俊,姚有领.基于多传感器技术的螺纹钢在线自动计数方法[J].钢铁研究学报,2006,18(1):59-62. [5]陆成溪.棒材自动分隔计数方法及装置[P].中国专利:200410155405.9,2004-10-29. [6]宋强,徐科,孙浩等.基于图象处理的棒材自动计数技术[J].钢铁,2004,39(5):34-37. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 计算机先进控制技术与系统 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [李现明]山东大学控制科学与工程学院 [issue] => [email] => x.tang@live.cn [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 李现明 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 81103 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => li xian ming [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => tang xiang [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51997 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 图像填充;;边缘聚集;;模板匹配;;目标跟踪 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 18660151393 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 汤翔 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学控制科学与工程学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 控制科学与工程学院 [title_en] => Automatic Steel Bar Counting System Based on Machine Vision [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Image Filling, Edge Convergence, Template Matching, Target Tracking [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TG334.9;TP391.41 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => imagefilling,edgeconvergence,targettracking,templatematching [author_test] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [sure] => 1 [irmagnum] => 0 [u_index] => 1 [name] => 李现明 [sys_author_id] => Array ( [0] => 21914 ) [irtag] => 0 [t_index] => 0 [person_id] => 21914 ) ) [sys_author_id_arr] => 21914李现明 [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => imagefilling,edgeconvergence,目标跟踪,边缘聚集,模板匹配,targettracking,图像填充,templatematching [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => 21914 [sys_author_id] => 21914 [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => f3e88b68fe3aee77b88ed9056c3f7279996805768 [hints] => 3 [id] => Katq32YBFjIhTVEb2omq [tags] => 0 ) [3] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 利用原位聚合和溶液共混的方式制备出了聚丙烯腈基碳纳米管复合材料。使用傅立叶变换红外光谱仪(FTIR)、热重分析仪(TG)、扫描电镜(SEM)、透射电镜(TEM)、R/SCC同轴圆柱体流变仪、X-射线衍射仪(XRD)、差示扫描热量仪(DSC)等测试方法研究了碳纳米管纯化前后的结构与性能的变化,并且利用以上分析手段研究了碳纳米管对聚丙烯腈基碳纳米管复合材料的结构和性能的影响,利用Fluke 1508型绝缘电阻测试仪测试复合薄膜的表面电阻率 研究发现,利用浓硝酸在常温下可以很好的除去碳纳米管(CNTs)中的杂质,同时在没有破坏碳纳米管本身优良的长径比结构的前提下接枝上COOH、OH基团。同时对碳纳米管在不同溶剂中的溶解程度进行了研究,结果表明,碳纳米管在DMAc中分散性最好,碳纳米管在不同溶剂中分散性为:DMAc>DMSO>DMF。 对原位聚合法制备的复合材料进行了转化率及结构形态的研究,结果表明:碳纳米管对复合材料的转化率产生影响,随着碳纳米管含量的增加,反应转化率逐渐升高,但当含量高于0.3%时聚合反应的转化率开始下降;通过对制得的复合材料进行FTIR、DSC、XRD测试可以看出,PAN可以有效的接枝到碳纳米管上使聚合粉料的预氧化温度提前,放热量和放热速率均降低,这有效的避免了预氧化过程中的集中放热;碳纳米管使其结晶程度也有所减弱,但并没有改变聚合物的结晶晶型,只是有序度改变了;对复合薄膜的断面进行SEM观察,结果表明,PAN基复合材料的导电性能明显提高,碳纳米管的单根分散为增强复合材料提供了可能。 通过溶液共混法制备复合溶液并对其流变性能进行了研究。结果表明,在低剪切速率下,随着碳纳米管含量的增加,复合溶液的表观粘度出现减小趋势,但当其含量超过0.5%时,复合溶液表观粘度又出现增大趋势,这证实了纳米粒子在含量较低时,增稠作用只有在较高剪切速率下才能体现出来;并且在碳纳米管含量较低时,随着测试温度的升高,溶液表观粘度的减小趋势减弱,说明此时溶液粘度对温度表现的敏感;随着碳纳米管含量的进一步提高,溶液的粘度逐渐增大,结构化程度提高,物理稳定性变差,可纺性难度增大,但整体变化不大,其对剪切速率的变得敏感。 对复合材料进行了DSC测试可以看出,溶液共混同样可以改善复合材料的热性能,减少复合材料集中放热的可能;通过XRD测试表明,预氧化后复合材料的结晶峰由2θ≈17°转移到20≈25°附近,这是代表材料芳构化结构的峰,说明复合材料在较低的预氧化温度下就完成了很好的环化而纯PAN在该处的峰则不十分明显。两种材料经400℃低温碳化后,在10°~40°之间均产生了一个肩峰,说明在400℃下材料均已完成环化作用,二者的不同只是体现为材料有序区与无序区分布的不同。 对材料进行FTIR、TEM研究表明,碳纳米管在复合薄膜中主要以物理结合形式存在,但在预氧化阶段对环化有促进作用,C≡N和CH2等一些主要吸收特征峰逐渐减弱并消失,而C=C和C=N基团的伸缩振动峰逐渐出现并增强,同时复合薄膜中的C≡N降低量明显高于纯PAN的。当碳纳米管的含量达到2%时,复合薄膜的环化率达到70.41%,而纯PAN环化率仅为20.24%,碳化阶段碳纳米管对材料的影响不大;碳纳米管在复合材料中部分呈单根分散状态,但也有很多团聚结构存在 对复合薄膜的表面电阻率的研究表明,当碳纳米管含量达到5%时,复合薄膜的表面电阻率由大于104MΩ迅速变为5.74 MΩ,但碳纳米管含量再增加时电阻率变化不大,说明碳纳米管一旦在薄膜材料中形成网络结构,材料的导电性能就迅速增强。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011222992.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-09 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-24 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 材料学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => In this paper polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite were produced by insitu polymerization and solution blending. Effects of CNTs content on the structure and the performance of composite were studied. The structure and proformance of CNTs before and after treated with structures and properties of composite were observed, which were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra (LRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), R/SCC coaxial cylinder rheometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The surface resistivity of composite film was tested by using Fluke 1508 type insulation resistance tester. It has been found that we can remove the impurities of CNTs by using nitric acid (65%) in room temperature very well, and can graft-COOH,-OH group onto the CNTs whitout disrupting the excellent length-diameter ratio stucture of CNTs. The dispersion for CNTs in different solvent was tested as follows:dimethylacetamide (DMAc)>dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)>dimethyl formamide (DMF) in room temperature. Composites which produced by insitu polymerization were studied and found some phenomenon as follows:with the increase of the content of CNTs, the reactions conversion increased gradually, but when the content reached to 0.3%, the conversion began to decline; at the same time, the preoxidation temperature of polymer was in advance because of CNTs, and alleviated the exothermic reaction, all of which would improve the peoperty of PAN; in some extent, it hindered polymer crystallization, but the structure and crystal of polymer could change. The investigation on the composites solution rheology showed that the viscosity reduces fristly and then increases with the CNTs content increases, which was produced by solution blending. Solution viscosity became lower when the CNTs content achieved 0.5%, but in high shear rate this phenomenon disappeared, this indicated that thickening role can be reflected with low content of CNTs. The viscosity and the structure viscous index became higher, the Non-Newtonian index was smaller and the physical stability was worse while the content of CNTs was higher. The solution was temperature-sensitive with the low content of CNTs but was tended to be shearing-sensitive with the higher one. The analysis of DSC、XRD showed that the carbon nanotubes could improve the thermal properties of composite materials, and alleviated the exothermic reaction. During the preoxidation process the position of crystallization of composite was varied from 20≈16°to 29≈25°, which suggested the structure of aromatization appear; in addition, they produced a shoulder peak at about 20≈10°~40°in carbonization stage, the cyclization was completed, it had different distribution of the order and the disorder region. The analysis of FTIR showed that during the preoxidation process the stretching vibrations of nitrile (C≡N) and the methane group (CH2) decreased and nearly disappeared such as C=C and C=N during the preoxidation process(255℃), which represented the ladder structure appeared and became stronger gradually. At the same time the dope of C=N group in composite film decreased quickly than that the formed pure PAN, and the cycilzation rate of film increased from 20.24% to 70.41%, when the content of CNTs was 2%, however, the effect of CNTs was not basically discovered in carbonization stage (400℃). On one hand, the part of carbon nanotubes in the composites was in a single dispersion state, on the other hand, the aggregate structure of the carbon nanotubes was found. When the content of CNTs reached to 5%. the surface resistivity of composite film reduced to 5.74 MΩfrom> 104 MΩquickly, and it has a little change with the content of CNTs increase. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200811985 [page] => 89 [title_cn] => 聚丙烯腈基碳纳米管复合材料的制备与研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]董纪震.合成纤维生产工艺学(下册)[M].北京:中国纺织出版社,1991. [2]Chand S. Review carbon fibers for composites[J]. Journal of materials science,2000.35(6):1303-1313. [3]张家杰.国内外碳纤维研究现状及发展趋势[J].化工技术经济,2005,23(4):12-15.19. [4]Basovar YV. HamadaY, Miyashita K. Effect of oxidation-reduction surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of PAN-based carbon fibers[J]. Electrochemistry Communications,1999, (1):540-544. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 高分子材料 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [王延相]山东大学材料科学与工程学院高分子材料研究所 [issue] => [email] => liuyulan0429@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 王延相 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 80502 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => wang yan xiang [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => liu yu lan [job_no] => [volume_label] => 50230 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 聚丙烯腈;;碳纳米管;;复合材料;;薄膜;;性能 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15106989472 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 刘玉兰 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学材料科学与工程学院高分子材料研究所 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 材料科学与工程学院 [title_en] => Preparation and Research of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanotubes Composite Materials [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Polyacrylonitrile; Carbon nanotubes; Composites; Thin films; Property [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TB383.1 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => carbonnanotubes,composites,property,polyacrylonitrile,thinfilms [author_test] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [sure] => 1 [irmagnum] => 0 [u_index] => 1 [name] => 王延相 [sys_author_id] => Array ( [0] => 24325 ) [irtag] => 0 [t_index] => 0 [person_id] => 24325 ) ) [sys_author_id_arr] => 24325王延相 [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => 24325 [sys_author_id] => 24325 [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => c7b184fd49cfd413bb7956cf7a034a1a1197795886 [hints] => 3 [id] => Uqtr32YBFjIhTVEbB5Cs [tags] => 0 ) [4] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 未来的移动通信系统需要支持更高的传输速率,容纳更多的用户,并且保障多种业务的服务质量(QoS)。在多用户共享的无线网络中,设计有效的无线分组调度算法将有助于实现这一目标。在无线网络中,调度的有效性和公平性通常是两个相互矛盾的性能指标,调度算法必须根据不同用户的QoS要求,在二者之间取得最优折中。因此,如何设计出既能保证用户的QoS,又能提高系统容量的分组调度算法是当前无线通信领域的一个研究热点。 本文从分析无线网络特点入手,介绍了无线分组调度技术的研究现状,给出了无线分组调度算法的分类、设计目标及性能评价标准,指出了当前面临的一些挑战。论文首先针对时变环境下时分复用的无线网络分组调度机制进行了研究,考虑到日后用户业务需求的多样性,以数据类业务和语音类业务为例分别展开讨论。由于不同的业务有着自身的特点和不同的QoS要求,在设计调度算法时考虑的因素也有所不同。例如,数据业务需要传输大量的数据,这就要求算法可以提供较高的数据速率,保证系统吞吐量;语音业务则对时延十分敏感,要求算法尽量减少时延,保证短期公平性。 文中首先给出了TDMA系统中的分组调度模型,介绍了RR、MAX C/I和PF三种适用于数据业务的经典算法,考虑到用户的访问时延这一因素,为了提高用户间的短期公平,在PF算法的基础上提出了改进的比例公平(M-PF)算法。该算法为每个用户维护一个访问时延计时器,使访问时延接近时延上限的用户优先获得调度机会。仿真结果表明,M-PF算法在实现严格长期公平基础上,大大提高了系统的短期公平性,仅在系统吞吐量方面较PF算法有极少的损失。 针对语音业务的研究,文中首先对M-LWDF和EXP这两种经典的调度算法进行了分析,考虑到语音业务对于分组时延的具体要求(分组超时率、超时期限等),依然采用PF算法的调度思想,提出了加权指数比例公平(WEPF)算法。该算法将指数化的分组等待时间加入判决准则中,设置了一个优先级区分参量,同时引入时延补偿机制,通过设定一个预超时门限,提前使即将超时的分组优先级提高,增加了其被调度的可能。在用户QoS要求相同和不同的假设条件下进行了仿真,结果表明WEPF算法大大降低了用户的分组超时率和时延抖动,提高了系统的综合性能,更好的保证了服务质量。 作为下一代移动通信的核心技术,OFDM技术可以在增加频谱利用率的同时提高系统的抗多径衰落能力。因此,OFDM系统中的分组调度算法也成为时下的一项研究热点。由于OFDM系统中的资源是时频二维的,因此设计针对该系统的调度与资源分配方案时,与一般的基于时分或码分复用的系统相比也有所不同。 文中最后对OFDM系统中的无线分组调度算法进行了研究,首先简单介绍了OFDM技术,描述了OFDM系统中的资源分配方案,给出了OFDM系统的调度模型。随后对系统进行数学建模,给出了三种用于该模型下的调度算法(K&H算法、McPF算法和加入子载波微调的K&H算法),比较了不同算法的性能。仿真结果表明McPF算法以损失微小的系统吞吐量为代价,在公平性和吞吐量方面取得了较好的折中;同时,子载波微调技术的引入可以更好的保证算法的短期公平性。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011227413.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-20 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-22 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 通信与信息系统 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Future mobile communication system needs to support higher transmission rate, accommodate more users, and protect the quality of service (QoS) for a variety of businesses. In a multi-user shared wireless network, to design effective wireless packet scheduling algorithm is helpful to achieving this goal. In wireless networks, the effectiveness and fairness of scheduling technology are usually two conflicting performances. Scheduling algorithms must obtain the best compromise between these two indicators based on QoS requirements of different users. Therefore, to design a packet scheduling algorithm which not only can ensure user's QoS, but also improve the system capacity is currently a hot research topic in wireless communication field. By analyzing the characteristics of wireless networks, the situation of wireless packet scheduling technology is introduced, the classification, design objectives and performance evaluation criteria are given, and thesis points out some of the challenges facing now. Firstly, the packet scheduling mechanism in time-division multiplexing wireless network with time-varying environment is studied. Taking into account the diversity of business needs of future users, discussion takes data business and voice business as example, respectively. Because different types of business have their own characteristics and different QoS requirements, the considerations are different during scheduling algorithm design. For example, data business often has a large amount of data need to transport, which require higher data rate from scheduling algorithms to ensure the system throughput. Voice business is very sensitive to delay, requiring algorithms to minimize delay and ensure short-term fairness. The thesis first describes the packet scheduling model in TDMA system, introduces RR, MAX C/I and PF three classic algorithms applied to data business. Taking into account the factor of the user's access delay, in order to improve the user's short-term fairness, modified proportion fairness (M-PF) algorithm is proposed based on PF algorithm. This algorithm maintains an access delay timer for each user, so that the user whose access delay is close to the maximum delay can get prior scheduling opportunity. Simulation results show that, M-PF algorithm is strict fair on long-term, as well as greatly improves the short-term fairness of the system, only in terms of system throughput has very little loss than PF algorithm. For voice business studies, the two classic scheduling algorithms M-LWDF and EXP are analyzed. Taking into account specific requirements (packet timeout rate, timeout limit, etc.) for packet delay of voice business, still using the idea of PF, weighted exponent proportion fairness (WEPF) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm adds exponentiated packet waiting time into discriminative rule, sets a prioritizing parameter, and time delay compensation mechanism is introduced by set a pre-timeout threshold, so priority of nearly timeout packet can be raised, the possibility of being scheduled will be increased. Under the assumption of same and different user's QoS the simulation results show that the WEPF algorithm greatly reduces user's packet delay and jitter, improves the system's overall performance and better ensures the quality of service. As a core technology of next generation mobile communication, OFDM technology can increase spectrum efficiency and improve system's ability of resistance to multipath fading. Therefore, packet scheduling algorithm in OFDM system has become nowadays a hot topic. Since resources in OFDM systems are two-dimensional time-frequency, so the design of scheduling and resource allocation scheme for this system is different from systems based on time-division or code-division multiplexing. Finally, wireless packet scheduling algorithm in the OFDM system is studied. First briefly introduces the OFDM technology, describes the resource allocation scheme in OFDM system, an OFDM system scheduling model is given. Then a mathematical model of the system and three scheduling algorithms (K&H, McPF and K&H with sub-carrier fine-tuning) for the model are given. Performances of different algorithms are compared. Simulation results show that in the cost of small system throughput loss, McPF algorithm achieves good compromise in terms of fairness and throughput. At the same time, adding sub-carriers fine tuning can better ensure the performance of short-term fairness. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200811502 [page] => 83 [title_cn] => 基于比例公平无线分组调度算法的研究与改进 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]祁玉生,邵世祥.现代移动通信系统[M].北京:人民邮电出版社,1999:12-15. [2]KNUTSSON J.. Call Admission on the Uplink of a CDMA System Based on Total Received Power[C].//IEEE ICC'99. Vancouver:IEEE,1999:1431-1436. [3]ARRAY C.. Personal Cell Core Technology [DB/OL]. http://www.arraycomm. com/pcct/spectral_efficiency.htm. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 宽带无线数字移动通信理论与应用技术 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张春业]信息科学与工程学院 [issue] => [email] => ljq9477@yahoo.com.cn [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张春业 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 81001 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => zhang chun ye [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => li jing qing [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51912 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 无线通信;;分组调度;;比例公平;;服务质量;;正交频分复用 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15863154237 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 李婧卿 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 信息科学与工程学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 信息科学与工程学院 [title_en] => Research and Modification of Wireless Packet Scheduling Algorithm Based on Proportion Fairness [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Wireless Communication; Packet Scheduling; Proportional Fairness; QoS; OFDM [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TN929.5 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => wirelesscommunication,packetscheduling,qos,proportionalfairness,ofdm [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 分组调度,qos,服务质量,ofdm,packetscheduling,比例公平,正交频分复用,无线通信,wirelesscommunication,proportionalfairness [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 9636c30e75ae0430fb15c650cfcf85f1-1755200142 [hints] => 3 [id] => nKtq32YBFjIhTVEb2omq [tags] => 0 ) [5] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 目的:因各种原因造成的面部先、后天软组织缺损凹陷,给患者带来很大的生理上、心理上的影响,一般都有很强的求治愿望。解决这种面部软组织的缺损,关键是选择一种合适的材料进行组织充填。传统的皮瓣法对供区创伤大,人工材料的异物反应和不安全性,使其均不能作为治疗面部凹陷缺损的最理想方法。上世纪80年代初,自体脂肪颗粒移植的方法开始用于治疗软组织缺损,移植后脂肪的成活率不稳定仍是这项技术的核心问题,根据已有的报道和回顾几年来完成的利用自体脂肪颗粒注射移植治疗面部凹陷病例对这种方法进行总结,探讨自体脂肪移植技术提取、纯化及移植注射等各个环节的操作要点,提高脂肪移植的成活率,改善面部凹陷畸形治疗的远期效果。 方法:自2007年6月至2010年10月,对不同原因所致的面部凹陷病例进行自体脂肪颗粒移植17例,男性7例,女性10例,年龄在16-56岁,面颊部凹陷6例,额部凹陷5例,颞部凹陷4例,半侧颜面萎缩2例,根据面部凹陷组织缺损部位、范围、程度不同分别一次注射填充1-20ml脂肪颗粒,注射治疗1-3次,随访3-36个月,观察指标有术后效果、并发症及患者的满意度评价。 结果:17例患者中6例经过1次注射,8例经过2次注射,3例经过3次注射填充,术后凹陷部位较前明显改善,随访期内未发现感染、硬结、皮下包块、囊肿或其他并发症,患者对治疗效果基本满意。 结论:1、自体脂肪颗粒注射移植是治疗面部凹陷畸形的一种有效的方法和手段。 2、自体脂肪颗粒注射移植具有无排斥反应、取材方便、无明显瘢痕、可重复进行等优点,且由于植入材料为自身脂肪,更易被患者从心理上所接受。 3、自体脂肪颗粒注射移植操作较为简单、安全,便于在基层医疗机构开展。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223339.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-09 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-12 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 整形外科 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Objective This study is to observe and summarize the cilinical effect of repairing facial concave deformity with autologugous fat granule injected. Method The clinicaldata of the patients who have undergone autologugous fat granules injected transplant dating from June 2007 to October 2010 were collected.The operative technical data、complications、esthetical results and patient satisfactions were analyzed。 Results All of the 17 patients who have undergone autologugous fat granules injected transplant obtained satisfactory outcomes after 1-3 times fat injection.The follow-up for 3-36 months revealed that there was no infection, hard and firm mass, cyst or other complications. Conclusion 1、Autologugous fat granules injected transplant is effective for the t reatment of facial concave deformity. 2、Autologugous fat granules injected transplant has advantages in no rejection.drawing materials conveniently, smaller scar and repeatable operation.This technique is easier to be accepted psychologically. 3、In consideration of simple operation and relative safety, autologugous fat granules injected transplant is suitable for primary hospital. 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Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg,2006,22 (3):1952200. 2易成刚,郭树忠.自体脂肪移植的基础研究与临床应用研究[J].中国美容医学,2003,4(12):429-432. 3焦新胜,王阳,刘志芳.自体脂肪颗粒注射移植的进展[J].医学信息,2003,6(16):322-325. 4 VONHEIMBURGD,LEMPERLEG,DIPPEB,etal.Free transplantion of fat autogragts expanded by tissue expanders in rats[J].BrJPlastSurg,1994,47 (7):470-476. 5祁左良,李二格,王厚滨,等.颗粒状脂肪组织移植的实验研究.中华整形烧伤外科杂志,.1997,13(1):54 6 Har-Shai Y, Lindenbaum ES, Gamliel-Lazarovich A, et al. An integrated approach for increasing the survival of autologous fat grafts in the treatment of contour defects [J]. Plast Reconstr Surg,1999,104 (4):945-954. 7陈瑜,李青峰,谢芸等.自体移植脂肪颗粒活性的检测方法.上海交通大学学报(医学版).2007,27(2):165-167 8戚可名,王侯琦,刘珍君,等.女性美容整形外科学.北京:人民军医出版社,2001:6732687 9杨楠.取脂部位不同对自体脂肪颗粒注射移植疗效影响的临床研究.中国美容医学杂志.2006,15(7):775-777. 10 Guerrerosantos J.The fate of intramuscularly injected fat autografts:An experimental study[J].AestheticPlastSurg,2005,29 (1):62 11李青峰.自体脂肪颗粒移植临床应用回顾与分析.中国美容医学杂志,2005,2(1):17. 12 Pu LLQ, Coleman SILCui XD, etal. Autologons Fat Gmfls Harvested and Refined by the Coleman Technique:A Comparative Study[J]. Plast Recormtr Surg,2008, 122(3):932-937. 13李发成,雷华,李青峰.若干理化因素对脂肪颗粒活性影响的研究.中国美容医学,2005,14(1):31233. 14张新合,高建华.取脂方法及吸脂压力对脂肪细胞损伤程度的实验研究.中 华医学美学美容杂志,2001,7(5):2542257. 15雷华,李青峰.抽吸负压对所抽吸脂肪颗粒活性影响的研究.中国美容医学,2005,14(1):27230. 16 Rohrich RJ, Sorokin ES, Brown SA. In search of improved fat transfer viability:a quantitative analysis of the role of centrifugation and harvest site. Plast Reconstr Surg,2004,113.(1):3912397. 17雷华,李青峰.离心对脂肪颗粒活性影响的研究.中国美容医学,2005,14(1):21224. 18 Piasecki JH,Gutowski K-Lahvis GP, et al. An Experimental Model for Improving Fat Graft Viability and Purity[J]Plast Reconstr Surg,2007,119(5):1571-1583. 19谢芸,李青峰,郑丹宁.半面萎缩的自体脂肪颗粒移植治疗.中国修复重建外科杂志.2007,21(12):1308-1311. 20毋巨龙,李世荣.bFGF对颗粒脂肪移植成活率的影响及CT影像学研究.重庆医学,2008,37(12):1314.1315. 21 Shoshani O,Livne E,Annoni M,etal. The efect of intedeukin-8 on the viability of injected adipose tissue in nude mice. Plast Reconstr Surg,2005,115(3):853-859. 22 Lu F, Gao JH,Ogawa Ket al. Improvement ofthe Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Using VEGF-Transfected Adipose-Derived Stem Ceils叨.Plast Rcconstr Surg,2009,124(5):1437.1446. 23万里,张宝林.肝细胞生长因子(HGF)对脂肪移植存活的影响.中国现代药物应用,2009,3(10):32-33. 24王友彬,戚可名,赵敏,等.瘦素促进移植颗粒脂肪成活的实验研究[J].中华整形外科杂志,2004,20(5):366-368. 25 KOTARO YOSHIMURA.Adipose tissue and its progenitor cells:soft augmentation with cell-assisted lipotransfer [G].日本东京:第五届国际美容外科学会大会论文摘要汇编,2008:132 26李劫,高建华,鲁峰,等.脂肪组织来源干细胞提高游离脂肪移植存活率的研究[J].中华整形外科杂志,2009,25(2):129-133. [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 整形外科 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [霍然]医学院 [issue] => [email] => gfbb123@126.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 霍然 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100210 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => huo ran [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => song xiao fei [job_no] => [volume_label] => 49217 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 脂肪颗粒;;自体移植;;面部凹陷 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13173080858 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 宋晓非 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 医学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 医学院 [title_en] => Application of Autologugous Fat Granules Injected Transplant in Facial Concave Deformity [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Fat granule;Autologugous transplantation;Deformity of facial depression [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R622 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => autologugoustransplantation,deformityoffacialdepression,fatgranule [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 9 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 面部凹陷,deformityoffacialdepression,脂肪颗粒,autologugoustransplantation,自体移植,fatgranule [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 58e2a7ce31a8df9cd56d28679c4c8fc0108160478 [hints] => 3 [id] => Latr32YBFjIhTVEbKpQF [tags] => 0 ) [6] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 乌斯宾斯基以建构文艺结构类型学为主要任务,试图通过展示艺术文本内部组织结构,揭示文学、绘画等艺术种类结构手法的共性。此项任务的提出基于两个前提:艺术作品具备不同程度的封闭性;作者位置与叙述者位置、故事人物位置形成各种类型的关系,视点具有多样性特征。按照“假设—例证—归纳”的思路,乌斯宾斯基假定存在意识形态层面、话语层面、空间—时间层面、心理层面四个视点层面,通过例证展开论述,从不同层面关系入手考察建构统一文本结构的可能性,探求结构类型建构规律。 艺术作品有其独特的时间、空间等组织规范和价值系统,对作品的接受过程是:读者从外部位置出发,进入边框圈定的内部世界,熟悉它的组织规则,然后走出艺术世界。边框即界线。边框之间具有不同等级,不同层级的、相对封闭的边框组成作品,相互之间可以嵌套,出现“边框中的边框”、“故事中的故事”。绘画中被描绘空间通常由几个微观空间组合而成,正如背景空间经常以门框或窗框的形式传达出来,出现“画面中的画面”。画面分为主景和背景、前景与后景,主景是结构的中心,背景往往出现在周边。边框通常作为背景使用的材料和方法存在,强调了背景的虚幻性,使作品中心更加逼真。 广博的学术视野与巧妙的修辞手法、大量生动的事例及深入细致的分析构成了其文艺结构类型学的内部肌理。从内部与外部、个性与共性关系出发进行阐述,使其既具有理论深度,又兼备了理论概括性。论述既体现出内部与外部关系,又体现出个性与共性关系。从整体上看,从内部与外部、个性与共性关系入手进行的分析构成了其理论建构的横向与纵向特征。在思维特征上,其理论善于对视点各层面类型进行总结,呈现出整体性、系统性思维特征;同时统筹多种二元思维为其所用,体现出由二元思维向多元思维共生过渡的特征。 乌斯宾斯基文化符号学、结构类型学思想在没有与西方现代社会人文科学充分交流的情况下形成,没有坚实的哲学基础。他只能从信息论、系统论和文艺社会学方法论中汲取营养。对他人思想的鉴别、吸收与利用构成了其理论的独特价值,其结构类型学思想对欧美叙事学的影响恰证明了这种价值。 结构分析与作者社会属性、文化属性之间的完美结合相对困难。乌斯宾斯基摒弃了形式主义和庸俗文艺社会学偏重一端的缺陷,把社会历史背景、不同国别艺术、日常语言现象、读者与作者等引入结构分析,具有一定开拓性。他对社会、文化的态度是积极关照,但不对其进行理论概括,有时把结构作为一种理智和观念的存在,以语言结构取代作为主体的人作为考量问题的出发点,对社会历史与作者社会属性、文化属性的忽略造成了其理论缺陷与不足。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011230887.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-15 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-23 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 文艺学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Uspensky's main task is to construct the structural typology of art, to show common types of structural practices of artistic text of literature and painting, by analyzing their internal organizational structure. Doing this job is based on two circumstances. On one hand, works of art have different degrees of enclosing, on the other hand, locations of authors, narrators and story characters have formed various types of viewpoints and relationships between them. In accordance with the "hypothesis-examples-induction" idea, Uspensky assumes that there are levels which is about to points of view on ideology, parole, space-time, psychology and executes discussions to find the possibility of constructing a unified text on different structural types of works. Works of art have their own time and space organizational norms and value system. The acceptance process is that the reader proceeds from outside into the internal world made by border delineation, becomes familiar with the rules of organization, then gets out of the works. Borders mean boundary lines. Borders have different levels, and it helps relative compositions make up works. They can be nested with each other, leading to "border of the border", "story of the story". Paintings' space is usually made up by a combination of several micro-space, as the background space is usually conveyed in the form of door or window frame, which would be called "picture in the picture" where the screen divide into the main scene and the background, foreground and background. The main scene is the center of the structure, while the background appears in the periphery. Borders are usually used as material and methods to construct the background, emphasizing the illusion of the background and making center of the works more realistic. Broad academic horizon, clever rhetorical device, a large number of vivid examples and detailed analysis constitute the structural typology of arts. Elaborating from relations of internal and external, personal and common, Uspensky gets a deep and general theory. Although parts of the discussion reflect not only the internal and external relations, also the personal and common relations, the whole theoretical construction has horizontal and vertical features. On way of thinking, the structural typology theory of art is good at summarizing on all types of view, showing holistic, systematic thinking characteristics. At the same time, he coordinates variety of binary, reflecting the characteristics of transition from binary thinking to the symbiosis of diverse thinking. Uspensky's cultural semiotics and structural typology are born under the absence of adequate exchanging with modern western social and human sciences, and there isn't solid philosophical foundation. He absorbs nutrients only from information theory, systems theory and cultural sociology. Identifying, re-using different ideas show his exploring courage and value of his theory, while the impaction on Narrative of European and American proved it valuable. Uspensky abandons defects of formalism and vulgar artistic sociology, introducing the social and historical background, different national arts, phrase, author and readers into structure analysis. However, it is so difficult to combine analysis of the structure with social property, cultural property of authors perfectly. He is positive to investigate society and culture, but he doesn't generalize each other, sometimes considering the structure as an existence of reason and concept, replacing the subject of the person with the language structure as the starting point of consideration, neglecting the history and cultural properties of author and social, and lead to the shortcomings of his theory. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200810748 [page] => 75 [title_cn] => 乌斯宾斯基文艺结构类型学思想研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => ①管月娥:《乌斯宾斯基的结构诗学理论及其意义》,《俄罗斯文艺》,2009年第3期。 ②管月娥:《乌斯宾斯基的结构诗学理论及其意义》,《俄罗斯文艺》,2009年第3期。 ③苏畅:《对视点问题的重新认识——关于乌斯宾斯基的<结构诗学)》,《南京师范大学文学院学报》,2006年第3期。 ④管月娥:《乌斯宾斯基与艺术文本结构的视点研究》,《扬州大学学报》,2009年第3期。 ⑤苏畅:《对视点问题的重新认识——关于乌斯宾斯基的(结构诗学)》,《南京师范大学文学院学报》,2006 年第3期。 ①黄玫:《韵律与意义:20世纪俄罗斯诗学理论研究》,人民出版社2005年版,第63页。 ② Joan Dagle. Soviet Semiotics, NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction,1975, Vol.9, No.1, p.77-80 ③ Alan C.Birnholz. The Slavic and East European Journal,1978, Vol.22, No.2,p.231-232 ④ Michael S. Flier. The Slavic and East European Journal,1985, Vol.29, No.3, p.340-342 ⑤ Alice Nakhimovsky. The Slavic and East European Journal,1984,Vol.28, No.4, p.554 ⑥[荷]佛克马、易布斯:《二十世纪文学理论》,林书武等译,三联书店1988年版,第44页。 ① Arthur K. Moore. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.107 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第3页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第17页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第2页。 ②[美]乔纳森·卡勒:《结构主义诗学》,盛宁译,中国社会科学出版社1991年版,第25页。 ③Lucid.D(ed),Soviet Semiotics,Hopkins University Press.1977, p.214 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第5页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第94页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第5页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第14页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第37页。 ①[俄]托尔斯泰《谈谈(战争与和平)这本书》,引自[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第43页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第45页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第56页。 ①引自[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第60页。 ①[俄]利哈乔夫:《古俄罗斯文学中的诗学》(俄文版),第305页,引自[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第65页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第77页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第84页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第94页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第94页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第109页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第109页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第111页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第112页。 ④[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第112页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第123页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第126页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第127页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第127页。 ③参见[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第148页,注11。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第136页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第137页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第64页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第58页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第81页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基著:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第119页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第102页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第36页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第44页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第115页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第44页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第112页。 ④[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第113页。 ①管月娥:《乌斯宾斯基的结构诗学理论及其意义》,《俄罗斯文艺》,2009年第3期。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第13页。 ①[比]布洛克曼:《结构主义》,李幼蒸译,商务印书馆1986年版,第33页。 ②周启超:《在“结构—功能”探索的航道上》,《外国文学评论》,1989年第1期。 ③[俄]什克洛夫斯基:《文艺散论·沉思和分析》,引自《俄国形式主义文论选·前言》,方珊等译,三联书店1989年版,第11页。 ④[俄]什克洛斯基:《散文理论》,引自《俄国形式主义文论选》,方珊等译,三联书店1989年版,第14页。 ⑤[俄]什克洛夫斯基:《小说论》,苏联作家出版社1983年版,第83页。 ⑥[俄]艾亨鲍姆:《“形式主义者”问题有感》,载苏联《报刊与革命》,1924年第5期。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年,第147页。 ②引自胡经之、王岳川主编:《文艺美学方法论》,北京大学出版社1994年版,第182页。 ③[法]托多罗夫编:《俄苏形式主义文论选》,蔡鸿滨译,中国社会科学出版社1989年版,第56页。 ④[美]华莱士·马丁:《当代叙事学》,伍晓明译,北京大学出版社2005年版,第124页。 ①[意]艾柯:《符号学导论》(德文版),第34页,转引自李幼蒸:《理论符号学导论》,社会科学文献出版社1999年版,第597页。 ②[俄]什克洛夫斯基等:《俄国形式主义文论选》,方珊等译,三联书店1989年版,第6页。 ③参见[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第118页,注2。 ①引自王加兴、王生滋、陈代文:《俄罗斯文学修辞理论研究》,黑龙江人民出版社2009年版,第8页。 ①引自王加兴、王生滋、陈代文:《俄罗斯文学修辞理论研究》,黑龙江人民出版社2009年版,第13页。 ②参见[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第44页,注72。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《洛特曼和塔尔图—莫斯科符号学派》,载《语言·符号·文化》丛书,莫斯科:格诺济斯出版社1994年版,第265-278页。 ④参见[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第121页,注14。 ①[俄]洛特曼、乌斯宾斯基编:《记号系统文集:塔图学派》(法文版),第78页,引自李幼蒸《理论符号学导论》,社会科学文献出版社,1999年版第596页。 ②[俄]洛特曼、乌斯宾斯基编:《记号系统文集:塔图学派》(法文版),第78页,引自李幼蒸《理论符号学导论》,社会科学文献出版社1999年版,第596页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第16页。 ④[俄]巴赫金:《陀思妥耶夫斯基的诗学问题》(德文版),第57页,引自李幼蒸《理论符号学导论》,社会科学文献出版社1999年版,第597页。 ⑤黄玫:《韵律与意义:20世纪俄罗斯诗学理论研究》,人民出版社2005年版,第64-65页。 ⑥李幼蒸:《理论符号学导论》(第三版),中国人民大学出版社2007年版,第660-661页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第12页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第119页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第66页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第66页。 ②引自申丹:《叙述学与小说文体学研究》(第三版),北京大学出版社2004年版,第204页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第12页。 ④苏畅:《对视点问题的重新认识——关于乌斯宾斯基的(结构诗学)》,《南京师范大学文学院学报》,2006年第3期。 ⑤[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第29页。 ⑥[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第98页。 ⑦[俄]什克洛夫斯基:《小说论》,苏联作家出版社1983年版,第118页。 ①引自赵毅衡:《当说者被说的时候——比较叙述学导论》,中国人民大学出版社1998年版,第121-122页。 ①申丹:《叙述学与小说文体学研究》(第三版),北京大学出版社2004年版,第204-205页。 ②引自申丹:《叙述学与小说文体学研究》(第三版),北京大学出版社2004年版,第207页。 ①李幼蒸:《理论符号学导论》,社会科学文献出版社1999年版,第37页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第94页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第2页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第6页。 ①引自[美]乔纳森·卡勒:《结构主义诗学》,盛宁译,中国社会科学出版社1991年版,第375页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第83页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第132页。 ④[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第94页。 ①[美]华莱士·马丁:《当代叙事学》,伍晓明译,北京大学出版社2006版,第148页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第6页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第2页。 ④[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第2页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第19页。 ②[荷]佛克马、易布斯:《二十世纪文学理论》,林书武等译,三联书店1988年版,第45页。 ③[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第36页。 ①[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第57页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第57页。 ②[俄]鲍.安.乌斯宾斯基:《结构诗学》,彭甄译,中国青年出版社2004年版,第150页。 1. Yu. M. Lotman, B. A. Uspensky, George Mihaychuk. On the Semiotic Mechanism of Culture. Soviet Semiotics and Criticism:An Anthology, The Johns Hopkins University Press.1978. 2. Joan Dagle. 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[author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 50101 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => ma long qian [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => yue shi fa [job_no] => [volume_label] => 52774 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 视点;;结构类型学;;文化符号学;;乌斯宾斯基;;莫斯科-塔尔图学派 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15661103451 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 岳士发 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 文学与新闻传播学院汉语系 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 文学与新闻传播学院 [title_en] => Analysis of Uspensky's Structural Typology of Art [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Point of view;Structural typology;Cultural semiotics;Uspensky;Moscow-Tartu school [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => I0 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => structuraltypology,moscowtartuschool,uspensky,pointofview,culturalsemiotics [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => moscowtartuschool,视点,structuraltypology,莫斯科塔尔图学派,uspensky,文化符号学,结构类型学,pointofview,culturalsemiotics,乌斯宾斯基 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => e965d9628ad4fc59c609e3207e206b01-1183632132 [hints] => 4 [id] => uqtq32YBFjIhTVEbv4Zn [tags] => 0 ) [7] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 改革开放以来,中国的经济建设取得了举世瞩目的成就,尤其是GDP始终保持较高的增长率,人均收入水平也随之提高。但是与此同时,能源消耗的急剧增长带来的环境问题也逐渐凸现出来。相对于国外的经济发达国家,中国的单位GDP能耗较高,能源强度较大。在全球都在倡导节能减排和绿色经济的背景下,研究如何降低中国的能源强度问题就显得尤为重要。 通过对前人研究进行文献综述发现,国内外现有的对于中国能源强度或能源效率的问题的研究,较多地集中在研究影响中国能源强度或能源效率的因素上,大都是采用不同的方法对各个因素(尤其是能源结构和技术进步这两大因素)对能源效率或能源强度的影响进行测度,而对于财政支出这一政府行为对于能源强度的影响的研究则相当薄弱。因此,本文将从财政支出的视角对中国能源强度进行理论和实证分析,最后根据分析结果提出关于中国能耗目标实现和节能减排的针对性政策建议,以期对中国制定能源政策提供参考和借鉴。 基于此,本文首先从理论层面对财政支出对能源强度的影响进行了分析。通过查阅前人研究成果,本文发现,政府财政支出对于产业结构、技术进步和经济发展有显著影响,而同时产业结构、技术进步以及经济发展,尤其是产业结构和技术进步,对于能源强度的影响已经得到了实证的验证。因此,本文认为,政府财政支出是影响能源强度的重要因素。 为了进一步研究中国财政支出对于能源强度的影响,本文运用中国1995——2009年的投入产出数据,采用最小二乘法对影响中国能源效率因素进行测度,结果发现,19952009年,中国财政支出的回归系数为5.484158,即财政支出总量占GDP的比重增加一单位,每亿元GDP所消耗的能源将增加5.484158单位,财政支出与单位GDP能耗的加大呈现了出明显的促进作用。换句话说,就是在这一期间内,尽管中国单位GDP能耗呈现出下降趋势,尽管中国政府努力地采取措施降低单位GDP能耗,包括财政支出上的措施,但是从总体上看,中国财政支出总量的增长却对于单位GDP能耗的下降起了阻碍作用。而其他的几个解释变量中,只有产业结构与单位GDP能耗呈现出显著的负相关关系。 在理论分析和第一步实证分析的基础上,本文利用中国1995——2006年的财政支出和单位GDP能耗数据从实证层面分析了财政支出五大组成部分对中国能源强度的影响。结果发现,经济建设支出中有以下几项同单位GDP能耗呈现出显著的负相关关系:专项支出、农业支出、社会保障补助支出、抚恤和社会福利救济费支出、政策性补贴支出、地质勘探费支出;与基本建设支出、武装警察部队支出和其他支出呈现出正相关关系,与财政支出的其他分项的关系不显著。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011230801.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-10 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-21 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 西方经济学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Since Reforming and opening up, remarkable achievements have been gained in the field of economic development in China. Especially, we always maintain a high GDP growth rate. Also will increase the level of per capita income. At the same time, however, With the rapid growth of energy consumption, the environment problems gradually stand out. Compared with developed countries, there is a higher energy consumption per unit GDP and energy intensity in China. In the background of the promotion of energy saving and green economic, it is important for us to study how to reduce China's energy intensity. On this basis of literature review, this article found out that the subjects of domestic and foreign research are more about factors for China's energy intensity or energy efficiency. Most of them measure every factor's (especially energy structure's and energy efficiency's) impact on energy intensity or energy efficiency using different methods. However, very little study on the impact of the fiscal expenditure-a conduct of the government-on energy intensity has been done. On this basis, in the beginning, this article analyses impact of the fiscal expenditure on energy intensity from the theoretical angle. By reviewing the previous research, this article found out that the fiscal expenditure affects the industrial structure, the technological progress and the economic development significantly. At the same time, the impact of the industrial structure, the technological progress and the economic development, especially the industrial structure and the technological progress, has been proved in empirical methods. Therefore, this article believes that the fiscal expenditure is an important factor which affects the energy intensity. In order to research the impact of the fiscal expenditure on the energy intensity, this article uses OLS to measure the factors which affect the energy intensity with the data in 1995-2009. The results shows that, from 1995 to 2009, the regression coefficient of the fiscal expenditure is 5.484158.This means that, if there is an increase of one unit in the expenditure, there will be an increase of 5.484158 unit in the energy intensity. In other words, during this period, China's energy intensity shows a downward trend and the government takes measures hardly to reduce the energy intensity, however, the growth of China's fiscal expenditure has blocked the reduction of the energy intensity. And among other several explanatory variables, only the industrial shows a significant negative correlation between the energy intensity. On the basis of the theoretical analysis and the preliminary empirical study, this article analyzes the influence of the five parts of the fiscal expenditure on the energy intensity from the epical angle with the data from 1995 to 2006. It was found that the following from expenditure for economic construction show negative correlations with the energy intensity:special expenditure, expenditure for agriculture, social security programs, pension and social welfare expenditure, expenditure for price subsidies, geological exploration expenses。The energy intensity has positive correlations with the capital expenditures, expenditure for armed police and forces and other expenditure. The energy intensity shows no significant relationship with other parts of the expenditure. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 54 [title_cn] => 中国财政支出结构对能源强度的影响分析 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]Boyd, G. A. and Pang, J. X. (2000) Estimating the Linkage between Energy Efficiency and Productivity [J] Energy Policy 28:pp.289-296. [2]Charnes, A. Cooper, W. W Rhodes, E. 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[author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 20104 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 52256 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 财政支出结构;;能源强度 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 石明兴 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => Analysis on Effect of China's Fiscal Expenditure Structure on Energy Intensity [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => F224;F812.45;F206 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 财政支出结构,能源强度 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 4 [id] => nKtq32YBFjIhTVEbzYgA [tags] => 0 ) [8] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 胆盐是一种重要的生物表面活性剂,主要存在于脊椎动物中,可用作增溶剂或乳化剂以促进日常饮食中摄入的油脂的吸收,在医学中还可以治疗胆结石。胆盐类物质一般都包括两部分,其中凹陷的a面是由带有极性羟基的类固醇骨架构成,而凸出的p面则是由亚甲基组成的。这种排布方式造就了胆盐的独特性质,与传统的直链型表面活性剂有很大不同。因此,关于胆盐的聚集行为的研究具有非常重要的意义。 关于添加剂对传统表面活性剂聚集行为影响的研究报道有很多,比如CTAB、SDS和Triton X-100等,而对于胆盐类表面活性剂的研究较少。在本论文中,我们选择脱氧胆酸钠(NaDC)为研究对象,采用表面张力、界面扩张流变、计算机模拟和荧光光谱的方法研究了三种碱性氨基酸(L-赖氨酸(L-Lys).L-精氨酸(L-Arg)和L-组氨酸(L-His))对NaDC在气/液界面上和水溶液中的聚集行为的影响,并考察了混合体系对非诺贝特的增溶作用;采用体相流变和透射电子显微镜的方法研究了无机钠盐对NaDC凝胶的流变行为的影响,以期为了解此类体系在生理环境中的聚集行为提供信息,为开拓胆盐类生物表面活性剂在不同领域的应用提供基础数据和理论依据。论文主要包括五部分内容: 论文的第一部分概述了胆盐表面活性剂的特性,并综述了胆盐的聚集行为以及添加剂对NaDC聚集行为的影响的研究进展。 论文的第二部分采用表面张力、界面扩张流变和计算机模拟的方法研究了三种碱性氨基酸对NaDC在气/液界面上的聚集行为的影响。结果表明,氨基酸的加入可以降低NaDC在水溶液中的临界聚集浓度(cac),NaDC之cac值的对数与氨基酸浓度的对数呈直线关系,但直线的斜率较低;随着NaDC浓度增加,体系的绝对模量呈现先上升后下降的趋势,加入氨基酸后绝对模量的峰值增大。三种氨基酸中L-Lys对NaDC的cac和界面流变性的影响最大,据此推测,NaDC和氨基酸之间的静电作用和疏水作用是主要驱动力。 论文的第三部分采用荧光光谱法研究了氨基峻对NaDC在水溶液中的聚集行为的影响。结果表明,NaDC在水溶液中的聚集是二级缔合过程,NaDC分子间通过疏水作用形成初级聚集体,而后在氢键和疏水作用的共同驱动下形成了一级聚集体。氨基酸的加入可以降低NaDC在水溶液中的微极性和cac值,而聚集数显著增加。L-Lys对微极性、cac和聚集数的影响最大,而L-Arg和L-His对三种参数的影响较小。据此推测,NaDC和氨基酸之间的静电作用、疏水作用和氢键都是NaDC聚集体生长的重要驱动力。从氨基酸的pKa值和疏水指数来看,L-Lys对NaDC聚集行为的影响最大,而NaDC与三种氨基酸之间的氢键大小的差别不大。因此,氨基酸与NaDC相互作用的强弱主要依赖于它们之间的静电和疏水作用。 论文的第四部分采用紫外光谱法研究了三种氨基酸对NaDC增溶非诺贝特效果的影响。结果表明,NaDC浓度越大,体系的温度越高,非诺贝特在NaDC溶液中的表观溶解度越大。在固定NaDC浓度时,可以根据公式计算得到摩尔溶解焓ΔsolHm。非诺贝特从不含NaDC的缓冲溶液转移至NaDC缓冲溶液过程的迁移焓ΔtrH和迁移熵TΔtrS都是负值,并且随着NaDC浓度的增加而降低,说明NaDC对非诺贝特的增溶过程是焓驱动过程。加入氨基酸后,NaDC增溶能力加强,且随着氨基酸浓度增加,增溶能力逐渐提高。氨基酸的结构不同,对其增溶能力的影响也不同,三种氨基酸与NaDC的混合体系对非诺贝特的增溶能力排序如下:L-Lys>L-Arg≈L-His。结合第三章的研究结果,可以推测,静电作用、疏水作用和氢键三种作用力共同控制NaDC与氨基酸混合体系对非诺贝特的增溶过程,而体系的微极性、临界聚集浓度和聚集数的变化对NaDC的增溶作用具有很大的影响。 论文的第五部分采用体相流变和透射电子显微镜的方法对比研究了无机钠盐对NaDC凝胶的流变行为的影响。结果表明,钠盐的存在可以使得NaDC聚集体沿着一个方向生长,最终形成交错的网络结构,而其它无机盐(如KCl、MaCl2、CaCl2和AICl3)则不能诱导NaDC凝胶的形成。随着NaDC浓度增加,凝胶的三个特征参数(剪切粘度、弹性模量和松弛时间)都随之增大,说明NaDC分子数目的增大有利于形成稳定的网络结构。随着盐浓度增加,三个参数都呈现先逐渐增加后缓慢减小的趋势,说明较低盐浓度有利于网络结构的形成,而盐含量较高时将破坏网络结构,并且在盐析作用影响下,使得NaDC分子自聚集而从溶液中析出。在这三种钠盐中,NaCl对NaDC凝胶流变行为的影响最为显著(?)所形成凝胶的网络结构最稳定,强度最大,而NaBr和NaI对其影响相对较小这个排列顺序与感胶离子序一致,离子半径越小,水化作用越强,与水分子之间的作用越强,越有利于NaDC分子的自聚集。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011170739.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-18 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-29 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 胶体与界面化学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Bile salts are important biosurfactants, which exist in the living bodies of vertebrates, and often act as solubilizing or emulsifying agents for absorption of dietary lipids, or as gallstone solubilizing agents in clinical medicine. All of them possess a rigid steroid backbone having polar hydroxyl groups on the concave a-face and methylene groups on the convexβ-face. This arrangement creates unique physiochemical properties for such a class of molecules, being different from those of conventional surfactants with a linear hydrocarbon chain. It is of great importance that the aggregation behavior of bile salts should be investigated. To our knowledge, the effect of additives on the aggregation behavior of the traditional surfactant, such as CTAB, SDS and Triton X-100, has been paid much more attention. However, details on the interactions between bile salts and additives have not been investigated deeply up to now. In this thesis, sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) is employed to study the effect of additives on its aggregation behavior. Surface tension, dilational viscoelasticity, molecular dynamic simulation and steady-state fluorescence spectra of pyrene of NaDC aqueous solution are investigated in the absence and presence of three kinds of alkaline amino acids, namely L-Lysine (L-Lys), L-Arginine (L-Arg) and L-Histidine (L-His), in order to study the aggregation behaviors of NaDC at the air/water surface and in aqueous solution. The effect of amino acids on the solubility of fenofibrate in NaDC solution was studied using UV-vis spectrum method. The rheological properties of NaDC hydrogel as a function of concentration of NaDC and salts were investigeted by rheological measurements. This research may open an avenue to gain a better knowledge about the behavior of such systems in the biological environment. This thesis is divided into five parts. In the first section, the properties of bile salt, the study progress on the aggregation behaviors of bile salts and the effect of additives on the aggregation bahavior of NaDC are summarized. In the second section, the aggregation behaviors of NaDC at air/water surface were investigated via surface tension and oscillating bubble measurements in the absence and presence of three alkaline amino acids. The results of surface tension show that NaDC has lower ability in reducing surface tension of water, because NaDC molecules orient at the surface with an oblique direction and tend to aggregate together, which is approved by the molecular dynamic simulation. L-Lys is the most efficient one among three amino acids in reducing critical aggregation concentration (cac) of NaDC in aqueous solution. The influence of amino acids on the dilational rheological properties of NaDC was studied using the drop shape analysis method in the frequency range from 0.02 to 0.5 Hz. The results reveal that the absolute modulus passes through a maximum value with increasing NaDC concentration. The addition of amino acids increases the absolute modulus of NaDC solution and the maximum value is observed at much lower concentration. From the perspective of structures of amino acids, the performance of L-Arg is similar to that of L-His, and both of them bring out smaller effect on the absolute modulus than that of L-Lys. From the above results, it may be presumed that electrostatic and hydrophobic effects are important impetus during the interaction between amino acids and NaDC at air/water surface. Hydrogen bonding is so ubiquitous in the system that the difference of hydrogen bonding between NaDC and amino acid is ignored. In the third section, the influence of three alkaline amino acids on the aggregation behaviors of NaDC in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) was studied at 25℃. The fluorescence probe technique of pyrene was employed to determine accurately the cac, polarity of microenvironment and aggregation numbers for NaDC aggregate. The added amino acids can effectively reduce the cac values and micropolarity of NaDC, indicating that it is easier for NaDC to aggregate together and lie compactly in the presence of amino acids. Meanwhile, the aggregation numbers of NaDC are increased evidently, meaning that more NaDC molecules connect together to form stable aggregates. It is worth mentioning that the performance of L-Arg is similar to that of L-His, and both of them bring out smaller effect on the above parameters than L-Lys. In view of this, it may be inferred that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction are responsible for the interaction between NaDC and amino acids in aqueous solution. In the fourth section, the ability of NaDC to solubilize fenofibrate in the absence and presence of amino acids was studied using UV-vis spectrum method. The solubility of fenofibrate is increased with increasing NaDC's concentration and temperature. At fixed NaDC concentration, the enthalpy of solution,ΔSolHm can be calculated from the slopes of the Van't Hoff plots. The characteristics of transfer enthalpy and entropy for fenofibrate from buffer to NaDC solution reveal that,ΔtrH and TΔtrS decrease in the negative region with increasing concentration of NaDC. In the negative region, drug dissolution is enthalpy favorable and entropy unfavorable, and enthalpy effect is overcomes the entropy effect. The solubility of fenofibrate is increased with increasing concentration of amino acids. From the perspective of structures of amino acids, the performance of L-Arg is similar to that of L-His, and both of them bring out smaller effect on the solubility of fenofibrate than that of L-Lys. From the above results, it may be presumed that electrostatic, hydrophobic effects and hydrogen bonding are important impetus during the solubilization of fenofobrate in NaDC/amino acid solution. Moreover, the micropolarity, cac values and aggregation numbers of NaDC in the absence and presence of amino acids can be employed to interpret the solubilization process. In the fifth section, the rheological behavior of NaDC hydrogel was investigated in the presence of sodium halide, including NaCl, NaBr and NaI. The added sodium salts is favorable to the growth of NaDC aggregates in a direction and thus the entangled network is formed due to the interaction between NaDC and sodium halide. However, other inorganic salts, such as KCl, MaCl2, CaCl2 and AlCl3 are impossible to induce the formation of NaDC hydrogel. With increasing concentration of NaDC, three parameters, including the viscosity, elastic modulus and retardation time, increase remarkably. It can be inferred that the increasing NaDC molecules are favorable to the formation of network.These parameters first incerase and then decrease slowly with increasing concentration of sodium salts. At a low salt content, the added salt can effectively screen the elactrostatic interaction among hydrophilic groups of NaDC and thus factor the formation of network. Addition of more salt makes excessive aggregation and eventually the gelator molecules start to escape from the gel network by precipitation. Among three kinds of sodium halide, NaCl is most effective in improving the strength of NaDC hydrogel, while Nal bring out smaller effect than those of NaCl and NaBr. This sequence is in agreement with the lyotropic series, indicating that the ion with samller radius has stronger hydration effect and thus the interaction between it and water is much stronger. Undoubtedly, the NaDC molecules are easy to aggregate in the presence of smaller ions. 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B.; Dano [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 表面活性剂物理化学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [徐桂英]山东大学化学与化工学院 [issue] => [email] => amyhefang@hotmail.com [datebase] => [degree] => 博士 [name_tutor1] => 徐桂英 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 70304 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => xu gui ying [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => he fang [job_no] => [volume_label] => 48629 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 脱氧胆酸钠(NaDC);;氨基酸;;聚集行为;;增溶;;凝胶 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 0546-88365436 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 何方 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学化学与化工学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 博士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 化学与化工学院 [title_en] => Effect of Additives on Aggregation Behaviors of Sodium Deoxycholate [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Sodium deoxycholate, Amino acid, Aggregation behavior, Solubilization, Hydrogel [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => O647 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => sodiumdeoxycholate,aminoacid,hydrogel,solubilization,aggregationbehavior [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 聚集行为,凝胶,aminoacid,solubilization,脱氧胆酸钠nadc,增溶,aggregationbehavior,sodiumdeoxycholate,氨基酸,hydrogel [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 1598195d94d3ba5a1ed1c8f6ec5a379f1337906901 [hints] => 3 [id] => katr32YBFjIhTVEbO5Yc [tags] => 0 ) [9] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 由于当前公共危机的不断频发,非政府组织已经逐渐参与到公共危机的治理中。特别是近年来非政府组织迅速发展,人们也逐渐开始热衷于通过非政府组织从事社会工作。但是在非政府组织积极参与危机管理的同时,非政府组织受到制度环境、法律体系、社会认同、自身发展等方面的问题,直接影响了其参与公共危机治理的作用与积极性。在2008年汶川地震中,我国大量的非政府组织参与到救灾中,而救灾期间非政府组织的不足也被放大。这需要我们去研究解决,将非政府组织真正纳入到公共危机管理中,以弥补政府在公共危机管理中忽略的方面。 本文主要结合非政府组织在汶川地震救灾中的案例,分析当前非政府组织参与公共危机管理存在问题,并提出相应的建议。本文分为四个部分。第一部分,对危机、公共危机、公共危机管理、非政府组织等的内涵及特征进行了界定。简要介绍了我国公共危机管理的的现状。第二部分对非政府组织参与公共危机管理的三个阶段:事前预防、事中应对和事后处理中存在的问题分别进行了分析,找出制约非政府组织参与危机管理的因素。第三部分介绍在汶川地震中,成功参与地震救援的非政府组织的情况,总结它们能够成功参与救灾的经验。第四部分对非政府组织如何更好的发展和参与公共危机管理提出了建议。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011225752.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-30 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 公共管理 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Because of the current high frequency of public crisis, non-governmental organizations had increasingly involved in the governance of public crisis. During the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the response of non-governmental organizations in China was much quicker and more active than any other previous cases. However, non-governmental organizations actively involved in crisis management, we saw that non-governmental organizations were restricted to various factors. There were still kinds of problems involved in participation in crisis management. In this essay, combined with the case of non-governmental organizations in the Wenchuan earthquake relief work, analysis of the current non-governmental organizations to participate in public crisis management problems, and made recommendations accordingly. This article was divided into four parts. First part of all, defined the meanings and characteristics of crisis, public crisis, public crisis management, non-governmental organizations and so on. Briefly introduced China's current situation of public crisis management. The second part, by analysis of the problems at non-governmental organizations through the three stages to participate in public crisis management:prevention in advance, response during the event and implementation after, searched for the factors in restricting non-governmental organizations involved in crisis management. The third part described the situation of non-governmental organizations of successful relief work in Wenchuan earthquake, concluded the successful experience gained in the relief work. In the fourth part, made the recommendations to the non-governmental organizations about how to better develop and take part in public crisis management. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 56 [title_cn] => 非政府组织在公共危机管理中存在的问题与对策研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => ①民政事业统计季报(2009年1季度)[EB/OL].(2009204212)[2009208210] http://cws.mca.gov.cn/accessory/ 200904/1240304550141.htm ①鹏军:《公共危机管理导论》,北京:中国人民大学出版社,2006,第43页。 ①王乐夫、马骏:“公共部门危机管理体制:以非典型肺炎事件为例”,《中国行政管理》2003年第7期。 ②吴兴军:“公共危机管理的基本特征与机制构建”,《华东经济管理》2004年第3期。 ③周大仁:“建立和完善应对突发事件的危机管理机制”,《美中公共管理》2005第3期。 ④曹现强、赵宁:“危机管理中多元参与主体的权责机制分析”,《中国行政管理》2004年第7期。 ⑤蔡志强:《社会危机治理:价值变迁与治理成长》,上海:人民出版社2006年版,第56页。 ⑥孙多勇:《突发事件与行为决策》,北京:社会科学文献出版社2007年版,第369-370页。 ①薛澜、朱琴:“危机管理的国际借鉴:以美国突发公共卫生事件应对体系为例”,《中国行政管理》2003年第8期。 ②楮松燕:《中外非政府组织管理体制的比较》,北京:国家行政学院出版社2008年版,第36-38页。 ③刘敏娟:“我国非政府组织的法治功能分析及完善对策”,兰州大学2009年。 ①肖鹏军:《公共危机管理导论》,北京:中国人民大学出版社2006年版,第11页。 ①薛澜、张强、钟开斌:“危机管理:转型期中国面临的挑战”,《中国软件科学》2003年第4期。 ②同上。 ③康凌翔:“我国政府公共危机管理能力”,《安徽农业科学》2010年第29期。 ①2006年1月8日,国务院授权新华社全文播发了《国家突发公共事件总体应急预案》,其中对公共危机的定义为“预案所称的突发公共事件,是指突然发生,造成或者可能造成重大人员伤亡、财产损失、生态环境破坏和严重社会危害,危及公共安全的紧急事件。”这是我国政府对突发公共危机所作的正式的界定。 ②罗伯特·希斯:《危机管理》,工成等译,北京:中信出版社2001年版,第6页。 ③全国干部培训教材编审指导委员会编写:《公共危机管理》,北京:人民出版社、党建读物出版社,2006年版,第2页。 ①潘桂林:“我国公共危机管理多元参与模式的完善研究”,华中师范大学2009年,第10页。 ②徐兵:“基于博弈理论的我国公共危机管理中若干问题研究”,同济大学2009年,第5页。 ① Salomon, luster M & Anheier,Helmut K, Global Civil Society; mansions of the Nonprofit Sector,U.S.A:The Johns Hopkins University Maryland,1999. ①清华大学NGO研究所主办:《中国非营利评论》,北京:社会科学文献出版社2007年版,第43页。 ①徐辉:“512汶川大地震NGO联合投入赈灾”,《学会》2008年第5期。 ②朱健刚、王超、胡明:《责任·行动·合作》,北京:北京大学出版社2009年版,第9页。 ①王冬芳:《非政府组织与政府的合作机制:公共危机的应对之道》,北京:中国社会出版社2009年版,第97-98页。 ②数据来源:http://www.ngocn.net/. ③贾西津:“政府对NGO要有开放心态”,新京报,2008年6月3日。 ①在同一行政区域内已有业务范围相同或者相似的社会团体和民办非企业单位,各级登记机关做出没有必要成立的判断时,可不予批准登记。人为控制非政府组织的数量。许多符合条件的非政府组织无法取得合法权益。 ②即规定社会团体、民办非企业单位等不得设立地域性的分支机构的原则。 ①数据来源于民政部网站:http://www.mca.gov.cn/. ②谷丽君:“我国非政府组织参与公共服务的机制研究”,河南大学2009年,第23页。 ①韩俊魁:((NGO参与汶川地震紧急救援研究》,北京:北京大学出版社2009年版,第21页。 ②郭巍青:“NGO的三重功能—以地震救援经验为基础的分析”,《探索与争鸣》2008年第7期。 ③“汶川地震:NGO的生长与艰难突破—来自四川灾区的调查”,《中国经济时报》2008年6月4日。 ①曹海丽、常红晓.举国救灾[EB/OL]. (2008-05—26)[2009-04—14]. http://magazine.caijing.com.cn/ 2008-05-26/110066183.html. ②吴东民、董西明:《非营利组织管理》,北京:中国人民大学出版社2003年版,第151-152页。 ③钟华:“NGO参与公共危机治理的作用研究——以5.12大地震为例”,《探索与争鸣》2008年第7期。 ①王冬芳:《非政府组织与政府的合作机制:公共危机的应对之道》,北京:中国社会出版社2009年版,第122页。 ②韩俊魁、纪颖:“汶川地震中公益行动的实证分析—以NGO为主线”,《中国非盈利评论》2008年第2期。 ①邓国胜:《中国非胜负部门的价值与比较分析》,《中国非盈利评论》(第一卷),北京:社会科学文献出版社,2007年版,第85页。 ①陈金罗:《社团立法和社团管理》,北京:法律出版社1997年版,第51-53页。 ②就我国目前实施的双重管理体制而言,大致有这样几种有代表性的意见。第一种意见认为,这是一种明显阻碍我国社团发展的管理制度,应该尽快予以废除。另一种意见则主张,在目前条件下,有关非政府组织的实践和理论尚不成熟,鉴于我国政府职能改革对行政部门执法力量配置的要求,并考虑我国人口基数大、非政府组织数量众多的实际情况,也考虑我国改革开放对稳定的政治环境的需求,在短期内还是应该坚持这种管理制度。第三种意见认为,在维持这种制度的同时开始积极的改革,最终目的是“形成更为完善的民间组织登记管理体制”。第一种意见集中反映了多数学者、民问组织积极分子、若干地方政府管理官员,以及外国人士的认识。第二种意见体现了政府官员,特别是中央一级政府某些官员的主张。第三种意见则来自于某些学者。参见吴玉章.从结社权利角度看社团管理问题.见魏定仁主编,孟令君,李元璋副主编:《中国非营利组织法律模式论文集》,北京:中国方正出版社2006年版。 ①王冬芳:《非政府组织与政府的合作机制:公共危机的应对之道》,北京:中国社会出版社2009年版,第121页。 ②社会企业是“任何为公共利益而进行的私人活动,它依据的是企业战略,但其目的不是利润最大化,而是实现一定的经济目标和社会目标,而且它具有一种为社会会排挤和失业问题带来的创新性解决办法的能力”。社会企业具有的五个特征:以社会效益为根本宗旨、运用社也运作的模式来经营、收益不能非配给投资者、有社会企业家的领导、得到政府的支持。 ①陈彬彬:“对改善我国非政府组织作用的思考”,《学习时报》2007年第5期。 ②钟华:“NGO参与公共危机治理的作用研究——以5.12大地震为例”,上海交通大学2009年,第31页。 ③林燕凌:“我国非政府组织研究”,复旦大学2005年,第27页。 ④公民社会概念是指相对独立于政治国家与市场经济组织的公民结社和活动领域,包括个人私域、非政府组织、非官方的公共领域和社会运动等四个基本要素。参考:晏辉:《市场经济的伦理基》,山西教育出版社1999年版,第15-20页。 ①苏德辉:“公共危机治理中的民间组织参与问题研究”,苏州大学2009年,第39页。 ①杨帆远航:“NGO参与公共危机管理的法治困境及其对策”,湖南大学2009年,第41页。 ②姚菩明:“发挥非政府组织作用推进防震减灾工作”,《防灾科技学院学报》2006年第3期。 ①韩俊魁:《NGO参与汶川地震紧急救援研究》,北京:大学出版社2009年版,第53页。 ①朱建刚等:《责任·行动·合作—汶川地震中NGO参与个案研究》,北京:大学出版社2009年版,第25页。 ①王冬芳:《非政府组织与政府的合作机制:公共危机的应对之道》,北京:中国社会出版社2009年版,第96页。 [1]薛澜、张强、钟开斌:《危机管理:转型期中国面临的挑战》,北京:清华大学出版社2003年版。 [2]曹现强:“危机管理中多元参与主体的权责机制分析”,《中国行政管理》2004年第7期。 [3]张成福:“公共危机管理:全面整合的模式与中国的战略选择”,《中国行政管理》2003年第7期。 [4]吴东民、董西明:《非营利组织管理》,中国人民大学出版社2003年版。 [5]王绍光:《多元与统一:第三部门国际比较研究》,杭州:浙江人民出版社1999年版。 [6]王名、刘国翰、何建宁:《中国社团改革:从政府选择到社团选择》,北京:社会科学文献出版社2001年版。 [7]莱斯特·M·萨拉蒙:《全球公民社会:非营利部门视界》,贾西津、魏玉译,社会科学文献出版社2002年版。 [8]莱斯特·M·萨拉蒙、S·沃加斯·索可洛斯基:《全球公民社会:非营利部门国际指数》,陈一梅等译,北京:北京大学出版社2007年版。 [9]郭国庆:《现代非营利组织研究》,北京:首都师范大学出版社2001年版。 [10]田凯:“西方非营利组织理论述评”,《中国行政管理》2003年第6期。 [11]王颖等:《社会中间层:改革与中国的社团组织》,北京:中国发展出版社1993年版。 [12]党秀云:“论公共管理中的公民参与”,《中国行政管理》2003年第10期。 [13]楮松燕:《中外非政府组织管理体制的比较》,北京:国家行政学院出版社2008年版。 [14]肖鹏军:《公共危机管理导论》,北京:中国人民大学出版社2006年版。 [15]南文卓:“中国非政府组织发展新环境中的角色分析:以汶川大地震为例”,《经营管理者》2008年第12期。 [16]俞可平:《治理与善治》,北京:社会科学文献出版社2000年版。 [17]徐莹:《当代国际政治中的非政府组织》,北京:当代世界出版社2006年版。 [18]珍妮特·V-登哈特、罗伯特·B·登哈特:《新公共服务:服务而不是掌舵》,北京:中国人民大学出版社2004年版。 [19]汪玉凯:《公共管理与非政府组织》,北京:中共中央党校出版社2003年版。 [20]周军、唐兴霖、赵俊梅:“我国非政府组织与政府间的关系:以草根环境NGO为例”,《理论探讨》2008年第6期。 [21]陈晓舒:“大地震:政府青涩对接NGO”,《中国新闻周刊》2008第48期。 [22]南姆·卡朴库:“无等级的合作:公共部门与非营利部门合作伙伴关系”,《公共行政》2004年第4期。 [23]赵成根:《国外大城市危机管理模式研究》,北京:北京大学出版社2008年版。 [24]王冬芳:《非政府组织与政府的合作机制:公共危机的应对之道》,北京:中国社会出版社2009年版。 [25]崔开云:“近年来我国非政府组织研究述评”,《东南学术》2003年第3期。 [26]贾西津:“NGO:挡风高墙中的水泥”,《决策》2005年第8期。 [27]刘丙婷:“论坛在公共治理中的作用分析:超越NGO的视角”,《理论与现代化》2007第5期。 [28]刘霞、张小进:“试论公共危机治理中多元参与主体的博弈及制度选择”,《学术论坛》2005第三期。 [29]彭翔:“非政府组织:危机管理的重要力量”,《南方论刊》2007第10期。 [30]张强、陆齐斌、张欢:“巨灾与NGO:全球视野下的挑战与应对”,北京大学出版社2008年版。 [31]杨文祥:《汶川地震15天》,北京:中国发展出版社2008年版。 [32]刘祖云:“政府与非政府组织关系:博弈、冲突及其治理”,《江海学刊》2008年第1期。 [33]朱健刚、王超、胡明:“责任·行动·合作:汶川地震中NGO参与个案研究”,北京:北京大学出版社2009年版。 [34]王名、陶传进、韩俊魁:《汶川地震公民行动报告:紧急救援中的NGO》,社会科学文献出版社2009年版。 [35]戚建刚:“《突发事件法》对我国行政应急管理体制之创新”,《中国行政管理》2007年第12期。 [36]王梦婷:“构建公共危机管理的对边合作网络”,《科技管理研究》2006年第1期。 [37]郭巍青:“NGO的三重功能:以地震救援经验为基础的分析”,《探索与争鸣》2008年第7期。 [38]王宝杰、陈莉、李建梁:“中国减灾领域的非政府组织”,《中国急救复苏与灾害医学杂志》2007年第10期。 [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [吴东民] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 吴东民 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 120401 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51838 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 非政府组织;;公共危机管理;;汶川地震 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 林帅 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => Strategy Research to the Problems among Non-governmental Organizations in Public Crisis Management [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => D630;D632.9 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 公共危机管理,汶川地震,非政府组织 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 4 [id] => Gqtq32YBFjIhTVEb2oqq [tags] => 0 ) [10] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 随着社会的发展,人民生活水平的提高,和人交流的增加,口腔医学知识的普及,对美的追求越来越高,其中颜面的美观是人们迫切要求的重要部分。错(?)畸形,不仅影响语言、消化、呼吸等功能,而且对颌面部美观影响很大,在很大程度上影响其社交和个体的身心成长。以颌骨可塑性为生物学基础的正畸牙移动可以矫治绝大部分错(?)畸形,改善患者面型,使其容貌美观,还能改善咀嚼、发音等功能。由于种族的演化和饮食结构的改变,近年来错(?)畸形的发病率越来越高,并且随着矫治水平的提高,口腔知识的普及,人们对于错(?)畸形矫治的需求越来越大。但正畸治疗疗程较长,如何缩短疗程,加速正畸牙齿移动,还要保护牙周组织免受过度的损害,避免一些副作用的发生一直是正畸界学者和医生不懈的追求。前列腺素(Prostaglandin, PG)、环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)、维生素D已被证实可以加速正畸牙齿的移动,但因长期应用作用不明确且价格昂贵等缺陷难以在临床上推广应用。祖国医药博大精深,有许多中医理论和中草药可以利用开发,用于实践和研究。骨碎补具有促进骨折愈合、强骨补肾的功效,是中医骨伤科方剂中的常用药。骨折愈合的过程是骨组织改建的过程,这与正畸治疗过程中牙齿受力后牙槽骨的变化是一致的。根据以上理论本实验选取了有经典“补骨强肾”功效的中药骨碎补,将祖国传统医学的观点和方法与现代化研究手段相结合设计了该实验研究。 目的:通过观察骨碎补水煎液对大鼠正畸牙齿移动距离,牙槽骨密度和血清钙磷锌含量的影响,研究骨碎补水煎液对大鼠正畸牙移动的作用。 方法:建立大鼠正畸牙移动实验模型,选取48只SPF级雌性Wistar大鼠随机分为实验组和对照组,每组24只,实验组每日灌服骨碎补水煎液6g/kg,对照组每日灌服1.5ml生理盐水。两组动物于正畸加力7、14、21、28天后,分批处死,断头取血,分离上下颌骨,测量各期上颌第一磨牙牙齿移动的距离,并选择下颌第一、二、三磨牙根尖下约0.15cm2的牙槽骨,测量其质量,得到牙槽骨密度值,分别测定血清中钙、磷、锌含量。两组的实验结果数据采用均数±标准差表示,应用PASW Statistics 18(原SPSS)统计软件进行数据处理,显著性检验采用配对比较的t检验,P<0.05认为差异有显著性。 结果:实验第7、14、21、28天时,实验组上颌第一磨牙移动距离及牙槽骨骨密度均大于对照组,除实验第7天时两组的牙齿移动距离及牙槽骨密度平均值不存在显著性差异外,其他各期的差异均有统计学意义。正畸加力后,实验组和对照组血清钙含量均降低;实验第7天时,实验组血清钙含量平均值高于对照组,第21天时和28天时实验组血清钙含量平均值低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义。实验第14天时,实验组与对照组的血清钙含量平均值不存在显著性差异。实验组和对照组血清磷含量均升高,实验组血清磷含量平均值高于对照组,差异有统计学意义。实验组和对照组血清锌含量均降低,实验第7、14、21天时实验组血清锌含量平均值比对照组高,实验第28天时实验组血清锌含量平均值比对照组低,差异均有统计学意义。 结论:在大鼠正畸牙移动中骨碎补水煎液可加速正畸牙移动,减缓牙槽骨骨密度的降低,调节血清钙磷锌含量,缩短正畸治疗的疗程。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011225556.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-24 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-16 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 口腔临床医学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => With the development of society and the raise of people's economy level,people need extensive exchanges and communication, and the demand for beauty increase, including facial appearance as an important part of the urgent requirement of people. Malocclusion influence not only language, digestion, breathing and other functions, but also maxillofacial beauty which has significant impact on their social communication and individual mental and physical growth. Orthodontic tooth movement based on the biological plasticity of jaws can improve both the patient deformity, face type, make its appearance beautiful and chewing, pronunciation as well as other functions. Because of the race evolution and change of dietary structure, the rate of jaws deformities and people demanding orthodontic treatment have increased in recent years. Because the orthodontic treatment is long, how to shorten the treatment, accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, prevent periodontal tissues from excessive damage and avoid the occurrence of side effects have been the pursue orthodontics.Prostaglandin(Prostaglandin, PG),adenosine cyclophosphate(cAMP), vitamin D have been demonstrated to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. However,the unclear function and their high price for long-term use make it difficult to use in clinic. The traditional Chinese medicine is extensive and profound and there are so many Chinese medicine theory and herbs can be exploited and used in practice and research. Drynaria fortunei which is common in TCM prescriptions for fracture can promote healing of bone fractures and strengthen kidney function. Fracture healing is the process of bone reconstruction, which is the same as alveolar change in orthodontic teeth treatment. According to above theory, our experiment has selected classic traditional Chinese medicine drynaria fortunei with "psoralea corylifolia strong kidney" efficacy.Based on traditional Chinese medical theory and methods as well as modern research methods, we have designed this experiment. Purpose:To investigate the influence of Drynaria Fortunei aqueous-extract on orthodontic tooth movement of rats. Methods:Experimental model for orthodontic tooth movement of rats was used.48 SPF female Wister rats were randomly divided into two groups:experimental group and control group. After applying orthodontic force 7 days、14 days、21 days and 28 days, all rats were killed in batches, with rats'skulls separated. Measure the movement distances of maxillary first tooth and alveolar bone density in root apical site of mandibular molars.Determine serum calcium、phosphorus and zinc levels 7、14、21、28 after orthodontic appliance were fixed.All the results were analyzed by PASW Statistics 18. Results:The distances of tooth movement and the alveolar bone density in the experimental group were both higher than that in the control group. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant(except those indicators measured at 7 days after applying orthodontic force).After orthodontic appliances were fixed,the serum calcium and zinc levels of the two groups both declined and serum phosphorus increased,but the experimental group was more significant.The difference had statistical significance. Conclusions:In orthodontic tooth movement of rats, aqueous-extract of Drynaria Fortunei can relatively increase the alveolar bone density, regulate serum calcium、phosphorus and zinc levels,speed the orthodontic tooth movement of rats. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 20042402014 [page] => 46 [title_cn] => 灌服骨碎补水煎液对大鼠正畸牙移动的影响 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [I]Klein DC, Raisz LG. Prostaglandins stimulation of bone resorption in tissue culture[J]. Endocrinology 1970,86:1436-1440. [2]Davidovitch Z, Finkelson MD, Steigman S, et al. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 口腔正畸学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张君]山东大学口腔医院正畸科 [issue] => [email] => 1026034520@qq.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张君 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100302 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => zhang jun [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => yan shu yun [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51122 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 骨碎补;;正畸牙移动;;牙槽骨骨密度;;钙;;磷;;锌 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13256709741 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 颜淑云 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学口腔医院正畸科 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 口腔医学院 [title_en] => Influence of Drynaria Fortunei Aqueous-extract on Orthodontic Tooth Movement of Rats [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Drynaria Fortunei;orthodontic tooth movement; alveolar bone density; calcium ;phosphorus [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R783.5 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => drynariafortunei,orthodontictoothmovement,phosphorus,alveolarbonedensity,calcium [author_test] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [sure] => 1 [name] => 张君 [u_index] => 1 [sys_author_id] => Array ( [0] => 25489 ) [irtag] => 0 [t_index] => 0 [person_id] => 25489 ) ) [sys_author_id_arr] => 25489张君 [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 正畸牙移动,骨碎补,alveolarbonedensity,calcium,drynariafortunei,牙槽骨骨密度,锌,orthodontictoothmovement,磷,钙,phosphorus [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => 25489 [sys_author_id] => 25489 [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 20adf58fcc9768ed1859318a77aa8554571884069 [hints] => 2 [id] => xqtq32YBFjIhTVEb64x3 [tags] => 0 ) [11] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 高压/特高压直流输电系统工作在单极大地回线运行方式,以及太阳耀斑引起的地磁感应电流,都会使得地中直流经中性点流入交流电力变压器而导致直流偏磁效应,造成振动加剧、谐波增大以及无功损耗增加等现象。研究变压器铁芯的磁化物理机制和数学建模方法,是定量分析直流偏磁效应的重要基础。 J-A理论在电磁装备的磁建模领域应用广泛,但因存在多种不同版本,人们在引用时也多是未加详细甄别,致使磁化建模的有效性难以保证。本文以铁磁材料的磁化物理机制为基础,从无磁滞磁化曲线以及能量守恒方程等数学描述出发,指出了原J-A理论的不合理及错误之处,并通过引入正确的能量守恒方程,推导出J-A修正理论的数学表征形式。基于非线性寻优算法求取J-A修正模型的关键参数后,针对不同磁材料样本开展了仿真研究,并与测量数据进行比较。研究结果表明,相比于原J-A模型,基于本文修正模型的仿真结果与材料的实测磁特性数据吻合较好,可更准确地模拟铁磁材料的磁化物理过程。进一步,在考虑涡流损耗和附加损耗的基础上,给出了动态磁化时的能量守恒方程,使得提出的J-A修正理论可拓展描述铁磁材料的动态磁化特性。基于提出的J-A修正理论,本文建立了用于研究直流偏磁效应的自耦变压器等效模型。 结合我国首条±660kV宁东-山东直流输电工程(银川至青岛),本文针对距青岛换流站30km范围的某220kV电力变压器,定量研究了其励磁电流特性、输出电压特性以及关键影响因素。结果表明,直流偏磁条件下变压器输出电压的偶次与奇次谐波含量均显著增加,使得变压器成为系统的严重谐波源。 最后,分析比较了现有的直流偏磁抑制措施,并基于本文给出的变压器输出电压谐波含量与中性点直流电流的定量关系,提出一种新的中性点直流电流间接测量方法,为发展直流偏磁抑制措施提供了新的思路。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011226856.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-10 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-22 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 高电压与绝缘技术 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Transformers with neutral grounding will partially be saturated when under single-electrode ground operation of HVDC or Geomagnetically Induced Currents. Then vibration of transformers, harmonic of systems and reactive power will increase significantly. The magnetized mechanism of transformer core and the method of mathematic modeling is important basis of quantitative analysis of dc bias effect. The prevailing J-A theory is extensively used in the arena of magnetic modeling, however, the coexistence of multiple versions with different mathematical expressions often creates difficulty in discriminating the accuracy and effectiveness of the analyzed results by J-A theory. Based on the magnetization mechanism of ferro-magnets, in terms of the fitting formula of the an-hysteretic magnetization curve and the energy conservation equation to be adopted, several queries were raised to the original J-A theory for describing the hysteresis phenomenon, and the irrationality and inaccuracy were thereby elucidated. A correct energy conservation equation was given through physical analysis, and modified mathematical expressions were further deducted to correct the original J-A theory. On acquisition of the model parameters through nonlinear optimization algorithm, simulation studies were carried out regarding various material specimens, and the results of which were compared with the measured ones. The research indicates that, the results given by the proposed modified J-A model coincide with the measured data much better than that by the original J-A model, which therefore presents a more accurate simulation of the ferro-magnets' magnetization process. Then, in consideration of the eddy current loss and additional loss, the energy equation is developed, the modified J-A theory can describe the dynamic magnetized characteristics of magnetic material. A auto-transformer model for DC bias analysis is built based on modified J-A theory in this paper. With regard to the undergoing±660kV HVDC transmission line from Yinchuan to Qingdao, related factors with DC bias impact on the power transformers, quantitative excitation current and quantitative harmonic analysis the main transformer of Kuangzheng substation,30km away from the Qingdao converter station, are carried out based on an established nonlinear system model. The results indicate that, both the odd and even harmonic components are getting much higher under DC bias than that without DC bias, which thereby makes the power transformers to severe harmonic sources. In the end, existing restraining measures and their characteristics are analyzed. Based on the quantitative relationship between transformer output voltage harmonic and neutral DC current, anew method of DC current measurement is proposed, which presents further potential for developing new restraining measures. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 交直流输电的交互影响 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [李庆民]山东大学电气工程学院 [issue] => [email] => lizhen1080@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 李庆民 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 80803 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => li qing min [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => li zhen [job_no] => [volume_label] => 52710 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 变压器;;直流偏磁效应;;J-A修正模型;;建模仿真;;抑制措施 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15066108256 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 李贞 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学电气工程学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 电气工程学院 [title_en] => Study on Magnetization Mechanism and Modeling Methodology of Power Transformers under DC Bias [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Transformer;DC bias;Modified J-A theory;modeling;Restraining measures [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TM41 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => transformerdcbiasmodifiedjatheorymodelingrestrainingmeasures [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => ja修正模型,变压器,直流偏磁效应,transformerdcbiasmodifiedjatheorymodelingrestrainingmeasures,建模仿真,抑制措施 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 894fa159134c7f2441b27b313a40031e2044751103 [hints] => 3 [id] => eqtq32YBFjIhTVEbv4Zn [tags] => 0 ) [12] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 语言之所以成为语言,是因为它承载着各种功能;人际元功能便是其中最为重要的一种。 M.A.K Halliday(1994)指出:语言的人际元功能在人们的日常交往中发挥着十分重要的作用,人们借助于人际元功能来表达自己的观点、态度、身份、角色及意图等,以此建立和维持特定的社会和人际关系。 毕业典礼致辞是公共演说的一种,是校园文化不可分割的组成部分之一。在国内外,不同领域的学者从各种不同视角对其进行了研究。然而,这些研究多侧重于剖析演讲技巧、篇章结构或语言风格等,从语言的人际元功能视角进行解读的很少。 本研究以Halliday的系统功能理论为基础,并借鉴了李战子的人称理论和J.R.Martin的评价理论,选取比尔·盖茨在哈佛大学毕业典礼上的致辞作为分析语料,构建了一个多维的立体分析框架,并综合运用了定性描述和定量分析手段,对其中的人际元功能及其实现方式进行了详细解读。本研究发现: 第一,毕业典礼致辞中的主要人际关系与政治演讲不同:演讲者一般不会刻意暗示自己的身份、权势或领导者地位以影响听众接受其政治观点或立场。相反,演讲者主要试图构建友好、和谐的人际关系,以便于听众乐于接受其建议或期望。 第二,在比尔·盖茨的毕业典礼致辞中,人际元功能通过多种方式在不同层面得以实现。 第三,比尔·盖茨演讲中第一人称代词(I和We)使用最频繁,比例高达64.33%,第二人称代词次之,第三人称代词比例最低。“I”表明比尔·盖茨是最主要的信息提供者,并愿意为其所言承担责任。Inclusive "We"拉近了与听众的距离,密切了联系。Exclusive "We"故意疏远与听众的距离,以彰显演讲的客观性和可信度。 第四,低值和中值情态词(主要是"can"、"will"和"would")使用频率高于高值情态词,表明比尔·盖茨努力使其演讲减少争议性,增加其可接受性和说服力。 第五,陈述语气使用最频繁,高达87.27%,主要用来提供各种信息以增强演讲的说服力和可信度。一般现在时是最主要的时态,表明比尔·盖茨更加关注当前而非过去或将来。 第六,直接引语和态度评价是人际元功能在篇章层面的主要实现手段。直接引语将多重声音引入演讲中,加强了多维互动。比尔·盖茨的肯定态度多于否定态度,意在激发学生对将来的希望和信心;其态度或明或暗,以引导听众作出不同的态度回应。 本研究的理论意义在于一定程度上拓展了Halliday的人际元功能分析框架,为毕业典礼致辞提供了新的研究视角。实践意义在于加深了人们对西方大学文化及公共演说的理解,帮助人们在公开演讲、辩论及写作中取得佳绩。教学意义在于帮助教师提高教学水平和技巧,帮助学生在英语听说及写作中取得进步。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011226343.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-22 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-22 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 英语语言文学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Language is what it is because it has to serve a variety of functions. Interpersonal function is one of the most important functions of language. M.A.K Halliday (1994) points out that interpersonal meta-function plays a crucial role in people's daily communication, which enables the speaker/writer to express his point of view, attitudes, status, role and intentions so as to set up and maintain certain social and interpersonal relationships. Commencement address, as a particular genre of public speech and an inseparable part of campus culture, has been studied from different perspectives in China and abroad. However, few of the previous studies have been carried out from the perspective of interpersonal meta-function theory. Based on Halliday's systemic functional theory, Li Zhanzi's study on English personal pronoun system and J. R. Martin's appraisal theory, the present study attempts to explore the interpersonal meta-function and its realization in Bill Gates' Harvard commencement address. The author of the present study tries to establish a multidimensional analytical framework (from word, sentence and discourse level respectively), and both qualitative description and quantitative analysis are carried out simultaneously in this thesis. The major findings can be summarized as follows: Firstly, the primary interpersonal relationship in a commencement address is different from that in a political speech. Different from in a political speech, the speaker in a commencement address usually does not intend to emphasize his power, authority or leadership in order to persuade the audience to accept his political stance or ideological ideas; instead, he mainly attempts to establish a friendly and harmonious relationship with the audience so as to persuade them to follow his suggestions and expectations. Secondly, the interpersonal meta-function has been realized on different levels and through various resources in Bill Gates'Harvard commencement address. Thirdly, in Bill Gates'Harvard commencement address, the first person pronouns (I and We) are used most frequently, accounting for 64.33% of the total; what follows is the second person pronoun (You); and the third person pronouns (They, He, She) take the least percentage. First person singular "I" implies that Bill Gates plays the dominant role of providing information, and he is willing to be responsible for what he says in the address. Inclusive "We" shortens the distance and helps to maintain the intimate relationship between Bill Gates and his listeners. Exclusive "We" keeps a deliberate distance from the audience to guarantee objectivity and credibility. Fourthly, it is found that low and median value modal auxiliaries ("can", "will" and "would") are used more frequently than high value ones in the address, indicating that Bill Gates tries to make his speech less controversial, more acceptable and more persuasive. Fifthly, declarative mood makes up an overwhelming percentage (accounting for 87.27%) of all mood types used in the selected address, and is employed mainly to give various information so as to realize the persuasive and instructive function of the speech. Of the three principal tenses, the present tense ranks the first indicating that Bill Gates is focusing on caring about the current situation and issues. Last but not the least, the direct speech proves to be a useful device for the speaker to present different simultaneous voices in his address. This provides a context in which multidimensional interaction is realized. It is found that there are more positive attitudinal evaluations than negative ones in Bill Gates' address, indicating that Bill Gates intends to encourage the students and give them hope and confidence. Bill Gates' attitude is expressed both explicitly and implicitly so as to elicit different attitudinal responses in his listeners. The present study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically speaking, it broadens Halliday's analytical framework of interpersonal meta-function to some extent and provides a new analytical perspective of commencement addresses. Practically speaking, it deepens our understanding of western campus culture and public speeches, which will help people to do a good job in delivering an appealing public speech, wining a heated debate or in writing an attractive composition. This study is also helpful for English teachers to improve their teaching techniques and for students to make great progress in English writing and speaking; therefore, the study also has its pedagogical significance. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 102 [title_cn] => 系统功能理论视角下比尔·盖茨哈佛演讲辞的人际元功能研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => Austin, J.L. How to Do Things with Words. Oxford:Oxford University Press.1962. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [常晓梅] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 常晓梅 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 英文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 50201 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51184 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 系统功能理论;;人际元功能;;毕业典礼致辞;;话语分析 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 胡水亮 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => A Study on Interpersonal Meta-Function in Bill Gates' Harvard Commencement Address: A Systemic Functional Perspective [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => H314 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 英文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 系统功能理论,人际元功能,话语分析,毕业典礼致辞 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 3 [id] => BKtq32YBFjIhTVEb6413 [tags] => 0 ) [13] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => [目的]: 对肝脏恶性肿瘤的患者,通过采用在肝三叶切除术前行门静脉栓塞化疗(portal vein chemoembolization, PVCE)的治疗方法,观察门静脉栓塞化疗前后栓塞侧肝脏及非栓塞侧肝脏的体积变化,门静脉栓塞化疗前后、肝切除手术前后肝功能变化,门静脉栓塞化疗前后、肝切除手术前后肿瘤标记物变化,探讨无法常规行根治性切除的原发性及转移性肝癌的外科治疗方法。 [方法]: 对1例乙状结肠癌同时合并左、右肝多发转移的患者,第一阶段,先应用新辅助化疗FOLFOX(奥沙利铂+5-氟脲嘧啶+甲酰四氢叶酸钙辅助化疗)方案化疗3周,然后一期行根治性原发肿瘤(乙状结肠癌)切除及肝左外叶切除术,术后继续应用FOLFOX和FOLFIRI(伊立替康+5-氟脲嘧啶+甲酰四氢叶酸钙辅助化疗)方案化疗;第二阶段,于乙状结肠癌切除及肝左外叶切除术后13周对右半肝行在B超引导下的经皮经肝的右肝门静脉栓塞化疗,栓塞剂采用直径300-500μm聚乙烯乙醇(polyvinyl alcohol, PVA)颗粒,同时加用化疗药物,使右半肝萎缩,左半肝代偿性增大,应用CT肝脏体积测量技术,观察门静脉栓塞化疗术前后右半肝(栓塞侧肝脏)及肝左内叶(非栓塞侧肝脏,即剩余肝脏体积)的体积变化,以及肝功能改变情况;第三阶段,门静脉栓塞化疗术后5周,肝左内叶代偿性增大到患者可以耐受手术的标准时,行右半肝切除术。 对1例巨大原发性肝右前叶巨大肝癌合并慢性乙型肝炎、肝硬化患者,第一阶段,先对栓塞侧肝脏(右半肝)行肝动脉栓塞化疗(transcatheter arterial chemoembolization, TACE);第二阶段,于肝动脉栓塞化疗术后1周对右半肝行门静脉栓塞化疗术,栓塞剂采用直径300~500μm聚乙烯乙醇(PVA)颗粒及不锈钢圈,同时加用化疗药物,使右半肝萎缩,左半肝代偿性增大,应用CT肝脏体积测量技术,观察门静脉栓塞化疗前后肝右三叶(手术中需要切除的部分)减去肿瘤的体积变化和肝左外叶(肝切除术后需要保留的部分,即剩余肝脏体积)的体积变化,以及肝功能改变情况;第三阶段,门静脉栓塞化疗术后4周,肝左外叶代偿增大到患者可以耐受手术的标准时,行肝右三叶切除术。 [结果]: 乙状结肠癌同时合并左、右肝多发转移的患者在门静脉栓塞化疗术前肝脏体积是左肝435.1cm3,右肝1380.0cm3,PVCE术后5周,右肝显著缩小,肝左内叶代偿性增大,患者肝脏体积是左肝624.4cm3,右肝740.2cm3,剩余肝脏体积(future liver remnant, FLR)占估计全肝体积(total estimated liver volume, TELV)的比率从门静脉栓塞化疗术前的25.6%升至门静脉栓塞化疗术后5周的50.0%,门静脉栓塞术后肝功能指标一过性增高,肝切除术后肝功能恢复良好,血清癌胚抗原(CEA)水平恢复正常。术后随访18月,无复发。 巨大原发性肝癌合并慢性乙型肝炎、肝硬化患者在门静脉栓塞化疗术前肝脏体积是肝左外叶151.5cm3,右三叶1685.4cm3,PVCE术后4周,右肝显著缩小左肝代偿性增大,患者肝脏体积是左外叶560.2cm3,右三叶1228.1cm3,剩余肝脏体积占估计全肝体积的比率从门静脉栓塞化疗术前的13.6%升至门静脉栓塞化疗术后4周的43.1%,肝切除术后肝功能恢复良好,血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)水平恢复正常。术后随访8月,无复发。 [结论]: 1、门静脉栓塞化疗术可防止大量肝大部切除术后的肝功能衰竭,对肝癌患者特别是存在肝硬化等原发肝脏疾病的肝癌患者来说,提高了肝大部切除术的安全性。 2、对无法常规切除的结肠肝转移癌,可以先在肝切除术前行门静脉栓塞化疗术,使剩余肝脏体积代偿性增大,达到患者能耐受手术切除的要求,从而扩大了肝切除术的适应证,具有确定的临床实用价值。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223464.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-09 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-18 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 外科学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => 【Objective】 To study the volume of the embolized liver and the nonembolized liver before and after the portal vein chemoembolization(PVCE), the liver function, serum CEA and AFP before and after PVCE, the liver function, serum CEA and AFP before and after the major hepatectomy. To investigate the surgical treatment of initially unresectable primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. 【Methods】 For a patient with multiple and bilobar colonic liver metastases, the first-stage hepatectomy consisted in a radical resection of the sigmoid colon carcinoma and hepatic left lateral segment. Subsequently, under the guidance of ultrasonography and X-ray, a right portal vein chemoembolization(PVCE) was performed by means of a percutaneous approach through the left portal branch to induce atrophy of the right hemiliver and hypertrophy of the left hemiliver. The volume of liver was evaluated with three-dimensional CT scan 2,4 weeks after PVCE.5 weeks after PVCE, a second-stage hepatectomy was planned to resect the right hemiliver. The volume of liver was evaluated with three-dimensional CT scan 2,4 weeks after PVCE. For a patient with huge hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) were performed and this was followed by PVCE 1 week later.4 weeks after PVCE, a right trisegmentectomy was planned to resect the right liver tumor. The volume of liver was evaluated with three-dimensional CT scan 2,4 weeks after PVCE. 【Results】 4 weeks after PVCE, right lobe was induced to atrophy remarkably and left lobe was induced compensatory hypertrophy. For the patient with colonic liver metastases,4 weeks after PVCE, the volume of the right lobe decreased from pre-PVCE 1380.0cm3 to post-PVCE 740.2cm3,. The future liver remnant of the left lobe increased from pre-PVCE 435.1cm3 to post-PVCE 624.4cm3. The ratio of future liver remnant to total estimated liver volume increased from pre-PVCE 25.6%to pos-PVCE 50.0%. The postoperative course was uneventful. The liver function and serum CEA decreased to the normal level. The patient was followed up for 18 months, no tumor recurs. For the patient with huge hepatocellular carcinoma, the volume of the right trisegment decreased from pre-PVCE 1685.4cm3 to post-PVCE 1228.1cm3. The future liver remnant of the left lateral segment for the HCC increased from pre-PVCE 151.5 cm3 to post-PVCE 560.2cm3. The ratio of future liver remnant to total estimated liver volume increased from pre-PVCE 13.6%to pos-PVCE 43.1%. The postoperative course was uneventful. The liver function and serum AFP decreased to the normal level. The patient was followed up for 8 months, no tumor recurs. 【Conclusion】 1、PVCE can prevent hepatic function failure after major hepatectomy. 2、PVCE allows more patients with previously unresectable liver tumors to benefit from resection. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200812949 [page] => 56 [title_cn] => 门静脉栓塞化疗术在肝癌肝三叶切除术中应用初步报告 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]Wicherts DA, Miller R, de Haas RJ, et al. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 普通外科 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [姜旭生]山东大学齐鲁医院普通外科 [issue] => [email] => kkkk111122@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 姜旭生 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100210 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => jiang xu sheng [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => jiang zhen zhong [job_no] => [volume_label] => 49245 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 肝肿瘤;;结肠肿瘤;;门静脉栓塞;;化疗;;肝切除术 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13589025054 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 姜振中 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学齐鲁医院普通外科 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 医学院 [title_en] => Application of Portal Vein Chemo-embolization to Major Liver Resection for Initially Unresectable Primary and Secondary Liver Tumors [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Liver neoplasms; Colonic neoplasms; Portal vein embolization; Chemotherapy; Hepatectomy [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R735.7 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => chemotherapy,hepatectomy,liverneoplasms,colonicneoplasms,portalveinembolization [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => liverneoplasms,门静脉栓塞,hepatectomy,肝切除术,colonicneoplasms,化疗,chemotherapy,结肠肿瘤,portalveinembolization,肝肿瘤 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 5c36e6fcbd921098b74bd10f3ae1886d-2034569394 [hints] => 3 [id] => Satr32YBFjIhTVEbKpQF [tags] => 0 ) [14] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 第一部分Notchl胞内区(Notchl-IC)对EGFR阳性乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响 研究背景: 乳腺癌是严重威胁女性健康的恶性疾患,是导致女性死亡的主要原因之一。阐明乳腺癌发生发展的分子机制对于探讨新的起协同作用的和更有效的联合治疗方案具有重要意义。细胞的增殖分化过程受多种因素的影响,其异常将导致多种疾病及肿瘤的发生。探讨肿瘤细胞异常的周期调控机制对于阐明肿瘤的发生发展并最终克服肿瘤具有重要意义。 Notch信号是在进化中高度保守的信号传导系统,广泛存在于哺乳动物和无脊椎动物中,由Notch受体(Notch 1-4)、Notch配体(Delta-like 1、3-4和Jagged 1-2)及细胞内效应分子(CSL蛋白:CBF1/Su(H)/LAG-1)组成。Notch受体为一组高度保守的跨膜蛋白质,由胞外区、跨膜区和胞内区组成。Notch配体通过与相邻的同型或异型细胞表面的Notch分子胞外区结合而激活Notch分子,释放具有活性的Notch胞内区(Notch-IC)。Notch-IC进而转移到细胞核内,通过CSL等途径,促进Notch目标基因的转录。 Notch信号在乳腺肿瘤中的作用最初是由于在CzechⅡ鼠中发现MMTV的插入座位而提出。在Notch1、Notch4基因中均发现了MMTV前病毒的插入,产生异常活化的Notch信号,导致鼠乳腺上皮的转化及乳腺腺癌的发生,提示Notch信号在乳腺癌的发生发展中发挥重要作用。但是,Notch信号在人乳腺发育及肿瘤中的作用研究较少。探讨Notch信号在人类乳腺癌中的表达活化情况及其在乳腺癌发展中的具体作用对于阐明人乳腺癌的发生发展具有重要意义,可以为人乳腺癌的治疗提供理论依据。 研究目的: 构建携带Notchl-IC的逆转录病毒载体,将其转染EGFR阳性的乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-231,筛选出表达Notch1活化胞内区的单克隆细胞系MDA-MB-231-ICN,检测外源性Notch1信号对乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响,探讨Notch1信号在乳腺癌发生发展中的作用。 研究方法: 1.逆转录病毒的包装及单克隆细胞系的筛选 1.1逆转录病毒的包装 采用碱裂解法提取质粒DNA(包括包膜质粒pCMV-VSV-G、包装质粒pKat和目的基因质粒pMSCV-ICN/GFP)。采用磷酸钙-DNA共沉淀法,将包膜质粒、包装质粒和目的基因质粒共转染HEK293T细胞,构建逆转录病毒并收集病毒上清。 1.2单克隆细胞系的筛选 用逆转录病毒感染乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-231,收集逆转录病毒感染72h后的MDA-MB-231细胞,限制性稀释法筛选出表达Notch 1活化胞内区的阳性单克隆细胞系MDA-MB-231-ICN. 2. Notch1胞内区(Notchl-IC)对EGFR阳性乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响 2.1乳腺癌细胞转染Notch1-IC后,Notchl信号的表达检测 应用Real-time RT-PCR技术检测]Notchl及其下游效应基因mRNA水平表达情况的改变,应用Western blot检测相应基因蛋白水平表达情况的改变。 2.2 Notch1信号对乳腺癌细胞的增殖检测 应用MTT方法检测乳腺癌细胞系的增殖情况,应用PI染色流式细胞术检测细胞周期分布,应用Real-time RT-PCR技术检测细胞周期相关蛋白CyclinD、CDK2、P21基因mRNA水平表达情况的改变,应用Western blot检测相应基因蛋白水平表达情况的改变,应用Annexin V/ PI染色流式细胞术检测细胞早期凋亡和晚期凋亡情况。 研究结果: 1.逆转录病毒的包装及单克隆细胞系的筛选 1.1逆转录病毒的包装 HEK293T细胞为有效的逆转录病毒包装细胞,质粒共转染后可产生高滴度病毒。我们成功转染HEK293T细胞,发现48-72h荧光强度最高,于此时收集病毒上清,备用。 1.2单克隆细胞系的筛选 逆转录病毒感染MDA-MB-231细胞72h后,其荧光强度最高,收集此时的细胞,采用限制性稀释法筛选阳性单克隆细胞系。成功筛选出稳定表达Notchl活化胞内段的单克隆细胞系MDA-MB-231-ICN. 2.Notchl胞内区(Notch 1-IC)对EGFR阳性乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响 2.1乳腺癌细胞转染Notch1-IC后,Notch1信号的表达增强 Real-time PCR结果显示,MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞Notchl基因在mRNA水平的表达高于MDA-MB-231细胞,提示转染后外源性Notchl信号可以促进Notchl基因的转录。Western blot的结果与Real-time PCR结果一致,提示Notch1蛋白的表达增加。Notchl下游效应基因Hesl在mRNA和蛋白水平的表达均增加,提示Notch1信号的活化。Notch1下游效应基因Heyl的表达也增加,进一步证实Notch1信号的活化。 2.2 Notchl信号促进乳腺癌细胞的增殖 MTT结果显示,MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞的增殖速度高于MDA-MB-231细胞。细胞周期分析结果显示,MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞Go期的细胞显著低于MDA-MB-231细胞,提示细胞周期的进展。细胞周期相关蛋白的检测发现,与MDA-MB-231细胞相比,MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞CyclinD和CDK2在mRNA水平的表达均增加,而P21的表达降低,蛋白水平的表达结果与]mRNA的结果一致,即CyclinD和CDK2蛋白的表达增加,而P21蛋白的表达降低。细胞周期相关蛋白的检测结果支持细胞周期分布的变化。细胞凋亡分析结果显不,MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞的早期凋亡和晚期凋亡率均低于MDA-MB-231细胞。 结论: 我们通过构建携带Notch1-IC的逆转录病毒载体,将其转染EGFR阳性的乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-231,成功筛选出表达Notchl活化胞内区的阳性单克隆细胞系MDA-MB-231-ICN,结果显示转染后Notchl信号的表达和活化增加。高表达的Notchl信号促进乳腺癌细胞系的增殖,抑制细胞凋亡,促进细胞周期进展,表明Notchl信号在乳腺癌的发生发展过程中发挥重要的促进作用。本研究对阐明人乳腺癌的发病机制具有重要作用。 第二部分EGFR联合Notchl信号在EGFR阳性乳腺癌发生中的作用 研究背景: 细胞的增殖分化过程受多种信号通路的调控,他们之间不是孤立的发挥作用,而是在一个复杂的细胞信号网络中相互作用,共同调节细胞的各项生命活动。研究肿瘤细胞异常的周期调控机制对于阐明肿瘤的发生发展机制并最终克服肿瘤具有重要意义。Notch和EGFR信号转导系统普遍存在于机体组织细胞中,二者相互关联,精确调控细胞周期进展。Notch和EGFR信号在肿瘤发病机制中的作用已成为研究重点。 Notch信号系统广泛存在于哺乳动物和无脊椎动物中,在进化中高度保守。Notch受体活化后,释放具有活性的Notch胞内区,Notch-IC转移到细胞核内,激活包括Hes在内的效应器,抑制分化相关基因的转录,最终达到抑制细胞分化、使细胞保持较原始阶段的目的。 EGFR信号是机体的另一条重要信号转导途径,广泛存在于上皮、间质及神经组织,贯穿于整个细胞的生长和增殖过程,对细胞的分化选择起重要的调节作用。EGFR家族主要包括EGFR(即HER1)和HER2-4。EGFR信号经受体酪氨酸磷酸化被激活,通过Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK途径级联放大,最后导致MAPK的磷酸化,修饰的MAPK信号进入细胞核,促进目标基因的磷酸化,调节基因的表达和活性。EGFR信号与肿瘤的发生发展及预后密切相关,在多种肿瘤如肺癌、结肠癌、乳腺癌、前列腺癌、卵巢癌及膀胱癌等中均有表达。高表达的EGFR信号可以促进肿瘤细胞的增殖,新生血管的形成,肿瘤的侵袭和转移等。患者常对化疗药物发生抵抗,预后较差。以EGFR为靶点的研究结果已有报道,EGFR反义RNA体外可以抑制细胞的增殖,诱导细胞凋亡。EGFR抑制剂可以引起卵巢癌、结肠癌、乳腺癌、肺癌及前列腺癌等多种肿瘤细胞生长受抑,起到抑癌的作用,并且EGFR抑制剂可以增强多种抗肿瘤药物的细胞毒作用。 在乳腺癌中,Notch与EGFR信号的相互作用还不清楚。本研究预期目标的实现将会明确EGFR信号在恶性乳腺癌中的作用,阐明乳腺癌中Notch1和EGFR信号的相互关系,进一步揭示恶性肿瘤发生发展的机制,为肿瘤的基因治疗提供实验依据。 研究目的: 应用EGFR抑制剂gefitinib来抑制EGFR的信号活性,探讨EGFR信号对人乳腺癌细胞系生物学活性的影响,揭示EGFR与Notch1信号间的相互作用及机制。 研究方法: 1. EGFR抑制剂对乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响及机制 1.1 EGFR抑制剂对乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响 选用人乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-231和MCF-7为研究对象,在EGFR抑制剂使用前后,应用MTT方法检测乳腺癌细胞系的增殖情况,应用PI染色流式细胞术检测细胞周期分布,应用Annexin V/ PI染色流式细胞术检测细胞早期凋亡和晚期凋亡情况。 1.2 EGFR抑制剂对Notch1和EGFR信号表达的影响 应用Real-time RT-PCR技术检测EGFR抑制剂使用前后Notch 1和EGFR mRNA水平表达情况的改变。 2. Notch1与EGFR信号在乳腺癌发生中的相互作用 选用MDA-MB-231细胞和MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞为研究对象,比较EGFR抑制剂使用前后乳腺癌细胞生物学活性的改变。应用MTT方法检测乳腺癌细胞系的增殖情况,应用PI染色流式细胞术检测细胞周期分布,应用Real-time RT-PCR技术检测Notch 1和EGFR以及细胞周期相关蛋白CyclinD、CDK2、P21基因mRNA水平表达情况的改变,应用Annexin V/PI染色流式细胞术检测细胞早期凋亡和晚期凋亡情况。 研究结果: 1.EGFR抑制剂对乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响及机制 1.1 EGFR抑制剂对乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响 与DMSO溶剂对照相比,使用EGFR抑制剂后,MTT结果显示乳腺癌细胞的增殖均降低,细胞周期分析结果显示乳腺癌细胞Go/G1期的细胞比率均显著升高,细胞凋亡分析结果显示乳腺癌细胞的早期和晚期凋亡率均增加。 1.2 EGFR抑制剂对Notch1和EGFR信号表达的影响 Real-time PCR的结果显示使用EGFR抑制剂后,MDA-MB-231和MCF-7细胞中Notch1和EGFR的表达均降低,表明EGFR信号的活性降低,提示EGFR与Notch1信号存在相互作用。 2. Notchl与EGFR信号在乳腺癌发生中的相互作用 Real-time PCR的结果显示使用EGFR抑制剂后,MDA-MB-231和MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞中Notch1和EGFR的表达均降低,但Notch1和EGFR在MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞中降低的幅度低于相应的MDA-MB-231细胞。 MTT结果显示使用EGFR抑制剂后,MDA-MB-231和MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞的增殖均低于溶剂对照,但MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞的增殖速度高于相应的MDA-MB-231细胞。 细胞周期分析结果显示使用EGFR抑制剂后,MDA-MB-231和MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞G0/G1期的细胞均显著高于溶剂对照,但MDA-MB-231-ICNG0/G1期的细胞仍低于相应的MDA-MB-231 G0/G1期细胞。细胞周期相关蛋白的检测发现使用EGFR抑制剂后,MDA-MB-231和MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞CyclinD和CDK2在mRNA水平的表达均降低,而P21的表达升高。 细胞凋亡分析结果显示,MDA-MB-231和MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞的早期凋亡和晚期凋亡率均增加,但MDA-MB-231-ICN细胞的早期凋亡和晚期凋亡率均低于相应的MDA-MB-231细胞。 结论: EGFR抑制剂抑制人乳腺癌细胞系的增殖,导致细胞周期阻滞和细胞凋亡增加,提示EGFR信号在人乳腺癌中发挥正调控作用。活化的Notch1信号可以部分逆转EGFR抑制剂对乳腺癌细胞的细胞毒作用,提示在乳腺癌的发生发展中,Notch1和EGFR发挥协同促进作用。本研究对阐明人乳腺癌的发病机制具有重要作用,为探讨人乳腺癌的临床治疗新方法提供新的理论依据。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011170539.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-10 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-19 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 内科学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women and it remains the second most frequent cause of cancer mortality in women. A continued focus on elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease is necessary to develop novel synergistic and more effective combination treatments for better management of breast cancer in the clinic. Cell growth and differentiation are controlled by a complex interplay of signaling pathways. Cancer is often perceived as a disease of malfunctioning cell signaling. It is of significant importance to explore the mechanism of tumor genesis and development. The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved intracellular signaling mechanism. Mammals have four Notch receptors (Notch1-4) and five ligands (Delta-like 1,3-4 and Jagged 1-2). These receptors are activated in most contexts by a ligand residing on an adjacent cell. Once activated, Notch receptors are cleaved and release the intracellular domain (Notch-IC), which is then translocated to the nucleus to play a transcriptional role mostly by binding to CSL family of transcription factors. The first indication that Notch signalling might play a role in breast cancer development came from the characterisation of an insertion site for the mouse mammary tumor virus in Czech II mice. The mouse mammary tumor virus insertions into Notch1 and Notch4 have been described, resulting in unregulated Notch signalling, suggesting that leads to tumor formation. Howerever, the role of Notch signalling in human breast cancer is less known. To explore the expression and the role of Notch signalling in human breast cancer is of significant importance, providing evidence for breast cancer therapy. Objective: The aims of the study are to construct the retrovirus vector containing Notch1 intracellular domain, to ransfect the retrovirus into breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and generate stable cell line MDA-MB-231-ICN overexpressing Notchl intracellular domain, to explore the role of exogenous Notchl on breast cancer cells, and to investigate the role of Notchl on breast cancer genesis. Methods: 1. Retrovirus packaging and monoclone cell line generating 1.1 Retrovirus packaging Alkaline lysis was used to extract plasmid DNA (including pCMV-VSV-G encoding the vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein, pkat encoding a retroviral packaging plasmid and MSCV-ICN/GFP encoding a constitutively active form of Notchl consisting of the intracellular domain). Calcium acid phosphate-DNA coprecipitation was used to cotransfect HEK293T cells and retrovirus particles were collected. 1.2 Monoclone cell line generating Human MDA-MB-231 cells were infected with retrovirus stocks and stable cell line MDA-MB-231-ICN overexpressing Notchl intracellular domain was generated by limited dilution. 2. The role of Notchl intracellular domain (Notchl-IC) on EGFR positive breast cancer cells 2.1 The expression of Notchl signaling after retrovirus infection Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Notchl and its downstream target genes at mRNA levels. Western blot was used to detect the expression of these genes at protein levels. 2.2 The role of Notch1 on breast cancer cells proliferation MTT method was used to detect the growth of breast cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis using PI stain was used to detect the cell cycle distribution. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of cell cycle related proteins CycinD, CDK2, and P21 at mRNA levels. Western blot was used to detect the expression of these genes at protein levels. Cell death analysis using Annexin V/ PI stain was used to detect the cell death rate. Results: 1. Retrovirus packaging and monoclone cell line generating 1.1 Retrovirus packaging HEK293T cells are efficient packaging cells and were successfully cotrasfected with plasmid DNA. The virus particles were collected at 48 and 72 h after transfection, filtered and then frozen for use. 1.2 Monoclone cell line generating Human MDA-MB-231 cells were infected with retrovirus stocks and cells were collected after 72h. Stable monoclone cell line overexpressing Notch1 intracellular domain was generated by limited dilution and designated as MDA-MB-231-ICN cells. 2. The role of Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1-IC) on EGFR positive breast cancer cells 2.1 Notch1 signaling expression was upregulated after retrovirus infection Data showed that MDA-MB-231-ICN cells expressed more Notch1 compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting transcriptional activation of Notch1 gene expression. The result of western blot analysis was in agreement with the Real-time RT-PCR data, showing that the protein level of Notchl was upregulated in MDA-MB-231-ICN cells compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Hesl expression, a known downstream target of Notch signaling, was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. Another Notch1 downstream target gene Hey1 was also upregulated at mRNA level, indicating Notch1 signaling activation. 2.2 The role of Notchl on breast cancer cells proliferation MDA-MB-231-ICN cells showed significantly increased cell growth rate as compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. MDA-MB-231-ICN cells showed a significant drop in the fraction of cells at G0/G1 phase compared with MDA-MB-231 cells. The decrease in G0/G1 phase cells observed was significant, suggesting that Notchl signaling induces cell cycle progression. Accordingly, an increase of CycinD and CDK2 expression and a decrease of P21 expression supported the cell cycle distrabution. Cell apoptosis analysis showed that both early and late apoptotic cells in MDA-MB-231-ICN cells were lower than those in MDA-MB-231 cells Conclusion: We constructed the retrovirus vector containing Notchl intracellular domain, transfected the retrovirus into breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and generated stable cell line MDA-MB-231-ICN overexpressing Notchl intracellular domain. We found that the Notchl signaling expression and activation were upregulated. The overexpression of Notchl signaling could promote the proliferation of breast cancer cells, inhibit cell death and promote cell cycle progression, indicating a positive role of Notchl signaling on breast cancer cells. The role of EGFR and Notchl signaling on EGFR positive breast cancer cells Background: Cell growth and differentiation are controlled by a complex interplay of signaling pathways. Rather than functioning as completely independent and insulated modules, signaling pathways interface in intricate ways to create a web of specific interactions that the cell integrates and interprets in a spatially and temporally appropriate manner. The evolutionarily conserved EGFR pathway and the Notch pathway represent two such signal transduction mechanisms. Notch and members of its signaling pathway are conserved in evolution, affecting many differentiation processes and cell-fate determination. Upon activation, Notch receptors release the intracellular domain, which is then translocated to the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional activator inducing the expression of members of the Hes family. Hes proteins in turn regulate the expression of downstream target genes. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane protein receptor with tyrosine kinase activity that triggers numerous signaling pathways. It has been implicated in the intercellular communication and cell fate specification. The EGFR family includes four members, EGFR (HER1) and HER2-4. Briefly, activation of EGFR by its ligands leads to the relay of signals via the generic Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK cascade, culminating in MAPK phosphorylation. Modified MAPK enters the nucleus and phosphorylates specific target transcription factors, thus linking signaling with gene expression regulation. EGFR overexpression has been found in many human tumors, including lung, colon, breast, prostate, brain, head and neck, thyroid, ovarian, bladder, gliomas, and renal carcinoma. Overexpression of EGFR signaling are crucial to cancer progression, including angiogenesis, metastatic spread, and the inhibition of apoptosis. Inhibition of EGFR in vitro by antisense RNA has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. EGFR inhibitor has been shown to inhibit the growth of multiple cell lines and to potentiate the cytotoxic effects of many chemotherapeutic agents on xenografts of human tumors derived from ovarian, colon, lung, vulval, and hormone-refractory prostate cancers. The link between Notch and EGFR signaling in human breast cancer remains unknown. Here we investigated the regulation of Notch expression and activity by a novel cross-talk mechanism with EGFR. We present data supporting the possibility of gene therpy on human breast cancer. Objective: The aims of the study is to investigate the role of EGFR signaling on human breast cancer cells using an EGFR inhibitor gefitinib to inhibit the activity of EGFR signaling, and to reveal the crosstalk between Notchl and EGFR signaling. Methods: 1. The role and mechanism of EGFR inhibitor on breast cancer cells 1.1 The role of EGFR inhibitor on breast cancer cells Human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were chosen for the study. EGFR inhibitor gefitinib was used to inhibit the activity of EGFR signaling with DMSO as solvent control. MTT method was used to detect the growth of breast cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis using PI stain was used to detect the cell cycle distribution. Cell death analysis using Annexin V/PI stain was used to detect the cell death rate. 1.2 The role of EGFR inhibitor on Notchl and EGFR expression Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Notchl and EGFR expression at mRNA levels. 2. The crosstalk between Notchl and EGFR signaling on breast cancer cells Human MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231-ICN cells were chosen for the study. EGFR inhibitor gefitinib was used with DMSO as solvent control. MTT method was used to detect the growth of breast cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis using PI stain was used to detect the cell cycle distribution. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Notchl, EGFR and cell cycle related proteins CycinD, CDK2, and P21 at mRNA levels. Cell death analysis using Annexin V/PI stain was used to detect the cell death rate. Results: 1. The role and mechanism of EGFR inhibitor on breast cancer cells 1.1 The role of EGFR inhibitor on breast cancer cells After EGFR inhibitor administration, the growth rate of breast cancer cells was decreased. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase in G0/G1 phase. Cell death analysis showed that both early and late apoptotic cells death rate were increased. 1.2 The role of EGFR inhibitor on Notch1 and EGFR expression Compared to DMSO solvent control, the expression of EGFR and Notch1 were both decreased in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after EGFR inhibitor administration. It indicated that the activity of EGFR signaling was downregulated and it also showed a crosslinked role of EGFR and Notch1 signaling. 2. The crosstalk between Notchl and EGFR signaling on breast cancer cells The expression levels of Notchl and EGFR after gefitinib administration were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that Notchl and EGFR expression were decreased, but the inhibitory effect was higher in MDA-MB-231 than in MDA-MB-231-ICN cells. Gefitinib inhibited cell proliferation in both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231-ICN cells, and the inhibitory effect was higher in MDA-MB-231 than in MDA-MB-231-ICN cells. In addition, a typical G0/G1 cell cycle arrest pattern was observed in gefitinib treated cells. Consistent with cell cycle arrest, expression of CyclinD and CDK2 were found to be decreased whereas P21 expression was increased. Apoptosis analysis showed that gefitinib induced early apoptosis in breast cancer cells, and the apoptosis rate was higher in MDA-MB-231 than in MDA-MB-231-ICN cells. Conclusion: EGFR inhibitor could inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells, promote cell death and cause cell cycle arrest, indicating that EGFR signaling play a positive role on breast cancer cells. Overexpression of Notchl signaling could partially rescue EGFR inhibitor-induced cell toxicity in breast cancer cells showing that EGFR and Notchl signaling may be positively cross-linked in human breast cancer. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200720713 [page] => 130 [title_cn] => Notch1胞内区联合EGFR抑制剂对EGFR阳性乳腺癌细胞生物学行为的影响 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => 1. Jemal A, Center MM, DeSantis C, Ward EM. Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(8):1893-907. 2. Korkaya H, Wicha MS. HER-2, notch, and breast cancer stem cells:targeting an axis of evil. Clin Cancer Res.2009;15(6):1845-7. 3. Wang Z, Li Y, Ahmad A, Azmi AS, et al. Targeting Notch signaling pathway to overcome drug resistance for cancer therapy. Biochim Biophys Acta.2010; 1806(2):258-67. 4. Yin L, Velazquez OC, Liu ZJ. Notch signaling:emerging molecular targets for cancer therapy. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 血液、肿瘤疾病的分子生物学研究 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [纪春岩]山东大学齐鲁医院 [issue] => [email] => djj1212@126.com [datebase] => [degree] => 博士 [name_tutor1] => 纪春岩 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100201 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => ji chun yan [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => dai jian jian [job_no] => [volume_label] => 48395 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => Notch1;;逆转录病毒;;增殖;;细胞周期;;凋亡;Notch1;;EGFR抑制剂;;增殖;;细胞周期;;凋亡 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13706400517 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 戴建建 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学齐鲁医院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 博士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 医学院 [title_en] => The Role of Notch1 Intracellular Domain and EGFR Inhibitor on EGFR Positive Breast Cancer Cells [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Notch1; EGFR inhibitor;Retrovirus; Proliferation; Cell cycle; Apoptosis [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R737.9 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => proliferation,notch1,egfrinhibitor,apoptosis,retrovirus,cellcycle [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 1f139c2322300b1a45c1018bd16e50b1-4332923 [hints] => 3 [id] => N6tr32YBFjIhTVEbVJcv [tags] => 0 ) [15] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 近几年,随着计算机技术、智能控制技术的不断发展,越来越多的新技术,新方法应用到生产中,为企业的发展带来新的活力与生机,企业在生产过程中更加注重节能减排、清洁生产、资源的再利用。 当前铸机全连铸、品种钢是一炼钢降低综合成本,提高企业效益,保持旺盛生命力的源泉。如何保证转炉对铸机匹配的合理性、有效性是一项重中之重工作,目前,一炼钢的生产指挥还处于经验管理阶段,受人为因素影响较多。虽然国内外各钢铁企业及研究学者都做了大量有益的研究与实践,但是目前仍是一个研究的重点。 由于炼钢生产是高温、高压、复杂、连续、快速、多变的系统,其过程参数繁多,各种因素变化频繁,具有显著的非线性、时变性,空间分布性和确定性,其生产过程是物质状态的转变,物质流管制在温度,时间和空间上的融合、协调和控制,各物流状态之间的匹配、衔接很重要。各工序之际呈现顺序加工关系,不仅存在物流平衡和资源平衡,而且还存在能量平衡和时间平衡问题。 本文对炼钢过程中的转炉,铸机等子系统的数据进行了收集和分析,通过线性规划得到了调度生产的组织模式,经过进一步优化得到了更加合理的生产组织模式。系统综合了典型的调度规则,通过具有多年实际调度经验的专家控制方案对炼钢生产调度进行管理与相关数据的分析,围绕铸机连续浇铸为目标,对整个工序时间,过程温度控制进行考虑,优化炉机匹配过程,以科学调度、合理安排,降低工序能耗最低,转炉对铸机匹配最佳为原则,结合转炉铸机之间的辅助时间最短的优化目标,实现了转炉铸机匹配衔接策略。它充分发挥转炉和铸机生产能力为目的,实现钢水保质保量按节奏送达连铸机,以实现更多炉次的连铸,实现一体化管理,降低企业成本,增加企业效益和市场竞争力。 通过系统的模拟仿真,验证了设计思想是正确的。系统结合人工干预较好的实现了调度策略,它有助于调度人员进行生产指挥,提供生产预警信息,降低劳动强度,减少意外事故,优化生产流程具有深远的借鉴意义,系统的运行同时也将产生良好的社会效益。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011230186.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-26 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-24 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 控制工程 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => In the last few years, with the progressive development of computer technology and intelligent control, more and more new technique and progressive methods applied in the production. They give new activity and opportunity of survival for enterprise's developing. Enterprises can pay attention to energy conservation and emissions reducing, cleaning production and resource reuse during the production run. Currently full continuous casting and non straight carbon steel is way for reducing, increasing private benefits and remaining survivability in Number One Steel Works. How to guarantee the rationality and validity between convertor and casting machine is a very very important work. At present, In number one steelmaking, the production directing is with the help of experience. Production can be much influenced by human factor. Although plenty researches and practice have been done with many countries'iron and steel enterprises and scholars. Yet it is also an investigative key point. The course of steel manufacture is a high temperature, high pressure, swift, changeable, complexity and uninterrupted system. Various procedure parameter, frequency changes of different kinds of factors, remarkable non-linearity, time variant, spatial distribution and determinacy. Production process is interfusion, balance and control among physical condition transition, flow of matter control at time, temperature and space. Syntaxes and match between material circulation states are of great importance. There are sequential processing relation, material circulation balance, equilibrium of stock, energy balance and time balance among each process. This paper introduces the subsystem of converter and casting machine,collected and analyzed the steel manufacture,through the linear programming got scheduling production organization model, got more reasonable production organization modes by further optimization. This system can comprehensive the typical scheduling rules, analyzed the control for steel manufacture and correlated data with expert control system. Optimization objective is the shortest change over time between convertor and caster. The aim is science dispatch, possible arrangements, reducing dissipation of energy best matching between convertor and caster, the cohesive strategy of converter and casting machine matching has been realized,giving full play to the production capacity of convertor and caster, to protect quality and quantity molten steel giving to continuous caster, more heats for continuous caster, integration control, reduce enterprise cost, increase private benefits and marketability. Through system emulation come to the expect aim. production dispatch system better realized fundamental strategy of expert dispatch with manual intervention control.It supplied beneficial support for training newlywed persons, supplying production early warning information, reducing labor intensity, decreasing accident, optimizing production flow. System obtained the good result with the economic performance. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 8430440370 [page] => 105 [title_cn] => 专家系统在炼钢动态调度中的研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]殷瑞钰.21世纪中国钢铁业发展战略的初步评估[J].炼钢,2002,18(1):1-8 [2]贾卫东.企业信息化规划的过程分解与应用[J].冶金管理2008.4:54 [3]夏凯.关于钢铁企业信息化集成应用的研究[J].冶金管理,2008.3:53 [4]杨建宏,殷卫民,黄华.精益生产实战应用[M].北京:经济管理出版社,2010.5 [5]王明海.冶金生产概论[M].北京:冶金工业出版社,2009:21 [6]冯捷,史学红.连续铸钢生产[M].北京:冶金工业出版社,2009:35 [7]杨雄胜,夏俊.内部控制评价:理论.实务.案例[M].大连:大连出版社,2009.1 [8]陈已寰,吴恒春,陈文彬.中小企业管理基础[M].广州:广东经济出版社,2011.3:5 [9]景祖坤等.企业经营管理概论[M].北京:中国展望出版社,1988.5:37-44 [10]黄志坚.钢铁冶金创新思维[M].北京:冶金工业出版社,2009:58--62 [11]殷瑞钰.冶金流程工程学[M].北京:冶金工业出版社,2009:147 [12]李德福.中小企业物流管理优化策略研究[J].物流科技,2010.2:53 [13]赵弘志.物流成本管理[M].北京:清华大学出版社,2010.12:44 [14]Numao M,Morishita S. Cooperative scheduling and itsapplication to steelmaking process. IEEE Transaction on Indudtrial Electronics,1991,38(2) [15]Dorn J,Kerr R.Co-operative scheduing systems communicating through fuzzy sets. 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DBP均显著增高(P<0.05-0.001)。与治疗前相比,奥美沙坦酯治疗8周后高血压组SBP和DBP均降低(P<0.001)。 (2)对照组和高血压组M型和二维超声心动图各项指标的比较:与对照组相比,高血压组IVS、LVMI、RVAW和LAD均明显增大(P<0.05-0.001)。与治疗前相比,奥美沙坦酯治疗8周后高血压组IVS. LVMI和RVAW均显著减低(P<0.001)。 (3)对照组和高血压组脉冲多普勒指标的比较: 与对照组相比,高血压组E1、E2、E1/A1比值、E2/A2比值显著降低(P<0.001),A1、A2显著增高(P<0.001)。与治疗前相比,奥美沙坦酯治疗8周后高血压组E2/A2比值明显升高(P<0.001),A2显著降低(P<0.001),余指标无显著性变化。 (4)对照组和高血压组TDI指标的比较:与对照组相比,高血压组Em1、Em2、Em1/Am1比值、Em2/Am2比值显著降低(P<0.05-0.001), Am,. Am2显著增高;两组间Sm1、Sm2差异无统计学意义(P<0.05-0.001)。与治疗前相比,奥美沙坦酯治疗8周后高血压组Em1、Em2、Em1/Am1比值、Em2/Am2比值明显升高(P<0.001), Am1、Am2显著降低(P<0.001) (5)对照组和高血压组左房AQ指标的比较:与对照组相比,高血压组反映左房储存器功能的EDV. RV、PFR明显增高(P<0.05-0.01);反映左房管道功能的REF. RE/AE、PRER/PAER显著减低(P<0.01);反映左房助力泵功能的AE、AEF、PAER明显增高(P<0.01)。与治疗前相比,奥美沙坦酯治疗8周后高血压组RV、PFR降低(P<0.05), RE/AE增高(P<0.05)。 (6)高血压患者左房AQ各指标间的相关性分析:OAEV与AE显著正相关(r=0.762, P<0.001); AEF与REF、RE/AE、PRER/PAER显著负相关(r值分别为-0.960.-0.862.-0.699, P均<0.001); RV与OAEV、AE显著正相关(r值分别为0.480、0.608,P均<0.001) (7)对照组和高血压组右房AQ指标的比较:与对照组相比,高血压组反映右房储存器功能的ESV、EDV、RV、PFR明显增高(P<0.01);反映右房管道功能的RE、PRER/PAER显著减低(P<0.05~0.01);反映左房助力泵功能的AE、PAER明显增高(P<0.01)。与治疗前相比,奥美沙坦酯治疗8周后高血压组PFR降低(P<0.05)。 结论 (1)高血压患者同时存在左房及右房功能异常,表现为储存器功能和助力泵功能增强、管道功能下降; (2)奥美沙坦酯能够降低高血压患者左房储存器功能,增强左房管道功能,但对助力泵功能影响较小 (3)奥美沙坦酯能够降低高血压患者右房储存器功能,对管道功能和助力泵功能无明显影响; (4)奥美沙坦酯主要通过降低血压和逆转心室重构,进而改善高血压患者心房功能。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011228416.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-06 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-13 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 内科学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Background Hypertension is a well-known risk factor for stroke, atherosclerosis and heart failure. The cardiac effects of hypertension include increased left ventricle (LV) mass and hypertrophy, as well as deterioration of the atrial functions. It was suggested that electrocardiographic evidence of a left atrial (LA) abnormality be an early sign of hypertensive heart disease. Changes in LA size, structure and functions in patients with hypertension are well described, but studies on right atrial (RA) functions in these patients are limited. Actually, the right atrium is an important contributor to right ventricle (RV) stroke volume, and indirectly, LV filling and cardiac output. The three components of atrial function are as a reservoir, conduit and booster pump at different stages of the cardiac cycle, and the performance is complex. Among invasive and noninvasive methods to assess heart function, echocardiography is the most commonly used noninvasive technique to evaluate atrial performance. Several techniques used to assess LA performance include those measuring pulmonary venous systolic flow, transmitral flow peak velocity, as well as pulsed-wave Doppler and acoustic quantification (AQ) technique. In particular, AQ has been used as an adjunct to Doppler echocardiography to assess diastolic dysfunction in the left atrium in hypertensive patients and LA function with aging, but few studies have examined RA function with echocardiography in hypertensive patients. Gaynor et al evaluated RA reservoir and conduit functions using invasive methods to measure flow and pressure and RV pressure. Recently, certain angiotension H receptor blockers have been found to alleviate LV hypertrophy, improve diastolic function and play a role in cardiovascular protection. Olmesartan, the newest member of this family, appears to be superior, not only in lowering blood pressure but also in correcting the altered structure and endothelial dysfunction of resistant arteries, attenuating collagen deposition, and reversing LV and vascular hypertrophy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of olmesartan on alleviating LV hypertrophy and improving LA and RA structure and function in hypertensive patients by AQ and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Objectives The purpose of the present study was 1. To investigate the characteristics of the structures and functions of LA and RA in the patients with hypertension by using AQ technique. 2. To evaluate the effect of Olmesartan on left-and right-atrial functions in hypertensive patients. Subjects and Methods We recruited 50 (15 females,53.2±7.6 yr of age) outpatients who visited our hospital between December 2004 and June 2005. Inclusion criteria were as following: outpatients of either sex, aged from 18 to 65, with mild to moderate hypertension (diastolic BP≥95 mmHg and≤105 mmHg, systolic BP≥140 mmHg and<180 mmHg after a 2-week washout period on placebo). Patients with secondary or malignant hypertension, heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, Diabetes mellitus, or severe liver or kidney diseases were excluded. Twenty healthy subjects (9 females,50.6±11.6 yr of age) without a history of cardiac disease or systemic hypertension and having normal findings on physical examination, chest roentgenography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography served as controls. The hypertensive participants meeting the entry criteria were treated with olmesartan 20 mg or 40 mg daily for 8 weeks. Echocardiography examination was carried out by the same expert operator using ultrasonography equipment (HP Sonos 5500 Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA, USA) with a 1-to 3-MHz transducer. Tissue Doppler imaging was performed in the apical view (4-chamber) to assess the function of longitudinal and circumferential myocardial fibers. The automatic border detection system was activated and optimized by adjusting the total gain, time gain compensation, and lateral gain. A region of interest was then drawn around the left and right atria. The LA-and RA-area waveforms were displayed, with visual confirmation of consistent stable waveforms. Data on atrial area versus time data were saved to magneto-optical disk. All atrial waveforms were analysed off-line by use of custom software. Results 1. Clinical characteristics of the control group and hypertensive group:There were no significant differences in age and gender between hypertensive group and control group. Compared with controls, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly higher in the patients with hypertension (P<0.05-0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were decreased after treatment with olmesartan (P<0.001). 2. The interventricular septal thickness, LV mass index, RV anterior wall and left atrial dimension were significantly higher in hypertensive group than those in control group (P<0.05~0.001). After 8 weeks of olmesartan treatment, the interventricular septal thickness, LV mass index and RV anterior wall decreased significantly in hypertensive patients (P<0.001) 3. The E1, E2 velocity, E1/A1 and E2/A2 ratio were lower and A1, A2 velocity were increased in hypertensive group than those in the controls(P all<0.001). After therapy with olmesartan, the E2/A2 ratio showed increased and A2 velocity decreased significantly (P all<0.001) 4. In contrast to controls, The Em1, Em2, Em1/Am1 and Em2/Am2 ratio were all markedly decreased and the Am1, Am2 were increased in patients with hypertension (P<0.05-0.001). However, there was no significant difference in Sm1 and Sm2 velocity between the two groups. After 8 weeks of oral antihypertensive therapy, higher Em1, Em2, Em1/Am1 ratio, Em2/Am2 ratio and lower Am1 and Am2 were observed in hypertensive patients (P all<0.001) 5. Compared with control subjects, significant increases were shown in ESV, EDV, reservoir volume and PFR (P<0.05-0.01), which reflected LA reservoir function. LA booster function, as assessed by AE, AEF, and PAER (P all<0.01), was increased in patients with hypertension. However, parameters of LA conduit function including REF, RE/AE ratio and PRER/PAER ratio were all significant decreased in hypertensives (P<0.01). The increase in RE/AE was reduced after therapy with olmesartan (P<0.05), and reservoir volume and PFR showed to decrease after therapy (P all<0.05). 6. The interactions among AQ indexes in hypertensive population were confirmed by linear correlation analyses. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the OAEV and AE (r=0.762,P<0.001). The AEF negatively correlated significantly with REF, RE/AE ratio and PRER/PAER ratio (r value was-0.960,-0.862 and-0.699, respectively, P all<0.001). The RV showed statistically significant positive associations with OAEV and AE (r value was 0.480 and 0.608, respectively, P all<0.001) 7. Significant increases were shown in reservoir volume, ESV, EDV and PFR (P all<0.01) for RA in hypertensive patients than those in controls. Compared with control subjects, The right atrium showed decreased RE and PRER/PAER in the hypertensive group (P<0.05-0.01), however, AE and PAER were increased (P<0.01). After 8 weeks of olmesartan treatment, PFR decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the right atrium. Conclusion 1. Systemic hypertension is associated with impaired LA and RA functions contributing to hypertrophy of interventricular septal thickness and dysfunction of biventricular relaxation. 2. Olmesartan might be useful to improve LA and RA functions in hypertensive patients. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 51 [title_cn] => 奥美沙坦对高血压患者心房功能影响的临床研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => 1. Lorell BH, Apstein CS, Weinberg EO, et al. Diastolic function in left ventricular hypertrophy:Clinical and experimental relationships. Eur Heart J,1990,11: G54-G64. 2. Matsuda Y, Toma Y, Moritanik K, et al. Assessment of left atrial function in patients with hypertensive heart disease. Hypertension,1987,8:779-785. 3. Brinker JA. Leftward septal displacement during right ventricular loading in man. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张薇] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张薇 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100201 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51492 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 高血压;;右房功能;;左房功能;;奥美沙坦酯 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 朱萌 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => Clinical Research on Impact of Olmesartan on Left and Right Atrial Function in Patients with Hypertension [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R544.1 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 高血压,左房功能,奥美沙坦酯,右房功能 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 3 [id] => GKtq32YBFjIhTVEb64t2 [tags] => 0 ) [17] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 随着集成电路设计的规模越来越大,设计验证的重要性越来越突出。由于具有良好的可扩展性,模拟验证一直是功能验证的主要手段。然而随着设计复杂性的持续增长,模拟验证的不完备性日益突出,这使得提出更准确、更有意义的验证质量评估方法,提高模拟验证的效率成为一个亟待解决的问题。 在模拟验证质量评估方面,目前的研究主要集中在覆盖率评估。覆盖率一方面能够作为量化功能验证完全性的尺度,另一方面可以发现验证不充分的地方,指导后续的激励生成。业界常用的一些覆盖评估方法有语句覆盖、条件覆盖、翻转覆盖、路径覆盖等,然而,这些覆盖评估方法或者是评估意义太简单,或者常常是计算上不可行,不能完全满足设计验证的需要。 起源于软件测试的变异测试是一种基于故障的测试方法。变异测试通过修改源程序引入程序的错误版本,这些错误版本称为变异体,将测试用例运行在变异体上,如果输出结果与源程序的输出结果不同,则认为该测试用例杀死了这个变异体,一般根据变异体被杀死的比率来评价测试用例的发现错误的能力,并且通过分析未被杀死的变异体来指导新的测试激励的生成。 本文将软件变异测试与数字集成电路的功能验证相结合,研究变异测试方法在功能验证质量评估中的应用。首先,在软件变异测试的基础上,针对Verilog HDL描述的寄存器传输级电路,提出一种运用于数字集成电路功能验证的变异测试方法。然后,基于前述变异测试方法,通过调研商用模拟器的Verilog编程接口,在Linux系统上实现了一个硬件变异测试系统原型工具。最后,结合工程实践中的一个Verilog HDL设计,进一步验证该方法的正确性,以及系统应用于评判功能验证质量的可用性。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223035.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-21 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-21 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 电路与系统 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => With the rapid increase of the scale of integrated circuit designs, design verification is becoming more and more important. Since simulation is highly scalable, it is still the main method for functional verification. Unfortunately, due to the growing complexity of designs, the partial verification in simulation is becoming an increasingly outstanding problem. Therefore, it is important to propose more accurate and more meaningful quantitative evaluation methods to improve the efficiency of simulation. In the field of simulation quality evaluation, current researches focus on coverage evaluation. There are two aspects of coverage evaluation:on the one hand it can be an inspiration scale to evaluate the completeness of simulation; on the other hand to guide the testing generation based on uncovered part. The common methods which used in industry are code coverage, condition coverage, toggle coverage and path coverage, etc. However, these methods can't fully meet the needs of design verification since they are too simple or too costly to compute. Mutation testing is a fault-based approach for software testing. The basic idea behind fault-based approaches is to show that particular faults cannot exist in the software by designing fault specific tests. In mutation testing, faults are introduced into the original program by creating many faulty versions of the program. Each of them contains one fault. The faulty programs are called mutants of the original program. Mutation analysis requires executing many mutants to kill them. The rate of killed mutants used to evaluate the quality of the test data, and the un-killed mutants can guide testing generation. In this paper, we combine mutation testing and functional verification together, studying the application of mutation testing used in evaluating the quality of functional verification. First of all, based on software mutation testing, a new hardware mutation testing approach is proposed to evaluate digital integrated circuit functional verification. This approach applies to such a kind of circuit described in Verilog HDL. Then, according to the aforementioned method and the Verilog Procedural Interface, we also implement a hardware mutation testing prototype tool based on Linux operating system. Finally, some experiments are carried to validate the effectiveness of the hardware mutation testing system used in evaluate functional verification quality. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 68 [title_cn] => 数字集成电路功能验证中的变异测试方法研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]ITRS2010. http://public.itrs.net. [2]时万春,张东,魏道政,等.现代集成电路测试技术[M].北京:化学工业出版社,2005. [3]Prakash P, Peter P, Leena S. System-on-a-Chip verification:Methodology and Techniques[M]. Massachusetts:Kluwer Academic Publishers,2001. [4]Kern C, Greenstreet M. Formal verification in hardware design:a survey[J]. ACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems,1999,4(2):123-193. 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From Specification Validation To Hardware Testing:A Unified Methods[C]. International Test Conference,1996,855-893. [30]王天成,吕涛,李晓维.RTL错误注入的方法和实现[C].第五届全国测试学术会议论文集,2008,294-297. [31]吕涛.数字集成电路设计验证的量化评估方法研究[D].北京:中国科学院研究生院,2009. [32]王天成.数字集成电路中设计错误的注入方法和实现[D].北京:中国科学院研究生院,2009. [33]Charles D, Sathyam K P, David R. The Verilog Procedural Interface for the Verilog Hardware Description Language[C]. IEEE International Verilog HDL Conference,1996, 17. [34]Cadence Design Systems Inc. VPI User Guide and Reference Version 5.1. San Jose:Cadence Design Systems Inc.,2003. [35]The Verilog Procedural Interface (VPI). http://www.asic-world.com/verilog/pli6.html. [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [王良] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 王良 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 80902 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 50837 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 数字集成电路;;功能验证;;变异测试;;验证质量评估 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 刘林 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => Research on Mutation Testing in Functional Verification of Digital Integrated Circuits [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TN431.2 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 验证质量评估,功能验证,数字集成电路,变异测试 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 4 [id] => Aatq32YBFjIhTVEb-Y49 [tags] => 0 ) [18] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 目的本研究通过对青岛市某两家三级甲等综合医院就诊患者和该两家医院员工满意度的调查,系统评价公立医院在医疗技术水平、医疗环境、医德医风和服务态度、医疗费用以及员工满意度等方面对医院总体满意度的影响,从就医患者角度和医院员工的多角度来探讨影响医院满意度的重要因素,并探索一条改善医院满意度的途径,为完善医院管理、突出公立医院公益性、提高医院满意度提供科学的决策依据 方法通过大量的文献复习,以及通过数轮专家咨询,初步筛选出影响医院满意度的指标,并根据这些指标分别制定患者满意度调查表与医院员工满意度调查表,对就医患者和医院员工随机进行抽样调查。调查结果采用SPSS软件对两所医院的数据进行分析比较,最后根据调查结果对影响满意度的一项影响因素进行干预并对干预后的满意度再次进行比较分析。 结果两家医院总体满意度均较高,就医患者的满意度调查包括医疗技术、医疗流程、医疗效果、医疗收费、就医环境以及两家医院总体满意度方面的比较,除服务态度B医院高于A医院外,其它项目A医院均高于B医院,差异有统计学意义。在对两家医院员工的满意度调查方面,A医院亦高于B医院,差异有统计学意义。研究通过对B医院流程改造,患者对该医院流程满意度有明显提高 结论医疗技术水平、医务人员服务态度、医疗费用、就医环境以及医疗流程特别是等候时间是影响患者满意度的重要因素;调查发现员工的满意度是影响医院发展的重要因素,员工的满意度一定程度上影响到患者的满意度,因此医院在关注患者满意度的同时也必须关注员工满意度,而两所医院员工对薪酬的满意度较低,这是影响员工满意度的主要因素。A医院患者总体满意度高于B医院、A医院员工对医院的总体满意度高于B医院,经证实,这与实际两所医院的工作量差距相一致,加强患者满意度管理,对医院的发展是一个正向的促进 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011227695.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-30 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-30 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 流行病与卫生统计学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Objects:Through the investigation of the satisfaction of patients and hospital staff of two third-grade class-A general hospitals of QingDao, and systematical evaluated of the impacts of medical technology, medical environment, service quality and service attitude and medical service prices on hospital satisfaction,and explored a way of improving hospital satisfaction,to improve hospital management by providing scientific basis for decision. Methods:Through a lot of literature review and expert consultation to develop the satisfaction questionnaires, carry out random sampling on medical patients and hospital staff. According to the results of analyses and comparations on the data from two hospitals by SPSS software, to intervene one of the impact factor of satisfaction and compare again the satisfaction after the intervention. Results:Two hospitals were high overall satisfaction. The satisfaction of Hospital A was higher than it of Hospital B in medical technology, medical procedures, medical effects, medical expenses, medical environment, employee satisfaction and overall satisfaction unless service attitude, and the difference was statistically significant. The hospital B process satisfaction was obviously improved after the hospital B process reform. Conclusion:Level of medical technology, the attitude of medical staff, medical expenses, medical environment and medical procedures, especially waiting time were important factors in patient satisfaction; Employee satisfaction is the important factors affected hospitals development, it extent affect patient satisfaction, so the hospital also must pay close attention to the employee satisfaction, and two hospital staff to pay satisfaction is low, this is the main factors affect employee satisfaction.The patient satisfaction of Hospital A was higher than it of Hospital B; The overall satisfaction of hospital staff of Hospital A was higher than it of Hospital B; Confirmed that the actual gap between the two hospitals is consistent workload, enhance patient satisfaction management is the development of the hospital to promote a positive. 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During the Process of economic reform, there exists the field of vacuum in the area of economic and social management and services. And now the strong demands for more organizations are booming. Besides, the diversification of ownership structure results in more resources which are beyond the government' control, which offers initial condition for the development of volunteer organizations. Currently, the most vigorous, influential and largest in scale volunteer organizations in china are Youth Volunteer Organizations. University student volunteer organizations, as the major participants, have undergone fast development by far. Through learning from history as well as previous volunteer organizations, we focused on promoting the strengths and avoiding shortcoming, and established the university student volunteer organizations and found methods to develop and manage them with Chinese characteristics. Thus, we have dedicated to the prosperity of the society and the social construction of spirituality. Meanwhile, since the definition of Chinese university student volunteer organization currently remains ambiguous and the growing gap among different organizations in size, supervision department, and levels of development, the university student volunteer organizations are facing many difficulties, moreover, it causes more uncertainty for its future paths. As discussed in this paper, how to promote healthy development for university student volunteer organization is a systematic system. Although the course of the service has been developed dynamically in China, it is still hard to predict the future path on how to develop Chinese volunteer organizations under the current circumstances since the definition of volunteer organizations is ambiguous, as mentioned before, and there is a huge gap among these organizations in size, supervision department, and levels of development. University student volunteer organizations need a better environment in order to grow in the future. In conclusion, the budgets from the government should be the major financial support for operation of university student volunteer organizations. In order to realize its healthy development, not only the university student volunteer organization should improve itself through its commitment to the society, but also the government and the society should make their efforts to help Chinese university student volunteer organization develop healthier. 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