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T polymorphism, and risk of ischemic stroke:results of a meta-analysis [J]. Neurology, 2002; 59(4):529-36. 15. Newman PE. Can reduced folic acid and vitamin B12 levels cause deficient DNA methylation producing mutations which initiate atherosclerosis? [J]. Med Hypotheses, 1999;53(5):421-4. 16. Zaina S, Lindholm MW, Lund G. Nutrition and aberrant DNA methylation patterns in atherosclerosis:more than just hyperhomocysteinemia? [J]. J Nutr,2005; 135(1):5-8. 17. Post WS, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ, Wilhide CC, et al. Methylation of the estrogen receptor gene is associated with aging and atherosclerosis in the cardiovascular system [J]. Cardiovasc Res,1999; 43(4):985-91. 18. Kim J, Kim JY, Song KS, et al. Epigenetic changes in estrogen receptor beta gene in atherosclerotic cardiovascular tissues and in-vitro vascular senescence [J]. Biochim Biophys Acta,2007; 1772(1):72-80. 19. Laukkanen MO, Mannermaa S, Hiltunen MO, et al. Local hypomethylation in atherosclerosis found in rabbit ec-sod gene [J]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol,1999; 19(9):2171-8. 20. Turunen MP, Aavik E, Yla-Herttuala S. Epigenetics and atherosclerosis [J]. Biochim Biophys Acta,2009; 1790(9):886-91. 21. Rodri guez-Campos A, Ruiz-Enri quez P, Faraudo S, et al. Mitogen-induced p53 downregulation precedes vascular smooth muscle cell migration from healthy tunica media and proliferation [J]. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol,2001; 21(2):214-9. 22. Baccarelli A, Wright R, Bollati V, et al. Ischemic heart disease and stroke in relation to blood DNA methylation [J]. Epidemiology,2010; 21(6):819-28. 23. Kim M, Long TI, Arakawa K, et al. DNA methylation as a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk [J]. PLoS One,2010; 5(3):e9692. 24. Endres M, Meisel A, Biniszkiewicz D, et al. DNA methyltransferase contributes to delayed ischemic brain injury [J]. J Neurosci,2000; 20(9):3175-81. 25. Endres M, Fan G, Meisel A, et al. Effects of cerebral ischemia in mice lacking DNA methyltransferase 1 in post-mitotic neurons [J]. Neuroreport,2001;2(17):3763-6. 26. Hu CJ, Chen SD, Yang DI, et al. Promoter region methylation and reduced expression of thrombospondin-1 after oxygen-glucose deprivation in murine cerebral endothelial cells [J]. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab,2006; 26(12):1519-26. 27. Wilson ME, Westberry JM. Regulation of oestrogen receptor gene expression: new insights and novel mechanisms [J]. J Neuroendocrinol,2009; 21(4):238-42. 28. Westberry JM, Prewitt AK, Wilson ME. Epigenetic regulation of the estrogen receptor alpha promoter in the cerebral cortex following ischemia in male and female rats [J]. Neuroscience,2008; 152(4):982-9. 29. Sunday L, Osuna C, Krause DN, et al. Age alters cerebrovascular inflammation and effects of estrogen [J]. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol,2007; 292(5):H2333-40. 30. Lee TH, Yoon JG. Intracerebral transplantation of human adipose tissue stromal cells after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats [J]. J Clin Neurosci,2008; 15(8): 907-12. 31. Klisovic RB, Stock W, Cataland S, et al. A phase I biological study of MG98, an oligodeoxynucleotide antisense to DNA methyltransferase 1, in patients with high-risk myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia [J]. Clin Cancer Res,2008; 14(8):2444-9. 32. Szyf M. Epigenetics, DNA methylation, and chromatin modifying drugs [J]. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol,2009; 49:243-63. [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 神经病学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [毕建忠]山东大学第二医院神经内科 [issue] => [email] => xuyingying1987@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 毕建忠 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100204 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => bi jian zhong [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => xu ying ying [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51533 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 雌激素受体-α(ER-α);;甲基化;;缺血性脑卒中;;甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应(MSP) [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15966697945 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 徐营营 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学第二医院神经内科 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 医学院 [title_en] => Study of Relationship between DNA Methylation of Estrogen Receptor-α Gene and Ischemic Stroke [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Estrogen receptor-α(ER-α);methylation;ischemic stroke;Methylation specific PCR(MSP) [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R743.3 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => methylationspecificpcrmsp,ischemicstroke,estrogenreceptorαerα,methylation [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 甲基化特异性聚合酶链反应msp,雌激素受体αerα,methylation,methylationspecificpcrmsp,ischemicstroke,甲基化,estrogenreceptorαerα,缺血性脑卒中 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 9a60bf2dd6d3678fd1555f0e99a85313415398356 [hints] => 2 [id] => Qatq32YBFjIhTVEb64t2 [tags] => 0 ) [3] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 在未来无线移动通信中,对高速、多媒体数据业务的需求日益增长,需要高效的频谱利用率以及信道容量。正交频分复用(OFDM)是一种具有高频谱利用率的多载波调制技术,而采用多天线的MIMO (Multiple-input and multiple-output)技术可以大大提高系统的信道容量。MIMO-OFDM技术将MIMO和OFDM相结合,优势互补,成为未来无线通信中的核心技术之一。而在MIMO-OFDM系统中,接收端在进行信号的相干解调以及空时解码时都需要事先获知信道的状态信息,所以信道估计是MIMO-OFDM系统的关键技术之一。本文主要研究MIMO-OFDM系统中的各种信道估计技术,深入研究讨论了基于插入导频符号的信道估计方法。 首先,本文简要论述了了OFDM、MIMO的技术背景和发展现状,分析了移动无线信道的多径时变特性,并且简要介绍了OFDM系统的基本原理及其优缺点、MIMO系统的基本原理、空时编码技术和信道容量以及MIMO-OFDM系统的基本思想和实现方法。 其次,论述了SISO-OFDM系统中基于导频的信道估计方法。介绍了导频插入间隔以及常用的导频图样,并研究了导频处的频域和时域LS信道估计算法,LMMSE信道估计算法,基于Wiener滤波器的二维联合信道估计算法以及采用两个级联的一维Wiener滤波器进行信道估计的方法。对上述各种信道估计方法进行仿真并对其性能进行了分析比较。 最后,在SISO-OFDM系统信道估计方法的基础上,研究了MIMO-OFDM系统中基于插入导频的信道估计技术,包括LS、LMMSE信道估计算法以及基于(?)Wiener滤波器的信道估计算法。将一种基于Wiener滤波器的二维联合信道估计方法成功应用在MIMO-OFDM系统中,通过仿真给出了此方法在不同多普勒频移条件下的性能,并与LS、LMMSE信道估计算法以及基于两个级联的一维Wiener滤波器的信道估计方法的的性能进行了对比分析。 由仿真结果可知,当多普勒频移较大时,LS和LMMSE信道估计方法以及基于两个级联的一维Wiener滤波器的信道估计方法对信道的时频变化比较敏感,且信道变化越快,性能恶化越严重。而本文研究的基于Wiener(?)滤波器的二维联合信道估计方法在多普勒频移较大时仍然能够很好地跟踪信道的时频变化,表现出优异的性能,与一维信道估计方法相比,估计的更准确,更适用于快衰落信道。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011224153.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-05 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-21 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 通信与信息系统 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => With the improving requirement of high data rate and multimedia communication services in the future wireless communication system, technologies with high spectral efficiency and channel capacity become more and more important. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier modulation technology with high spectral efficiency while MIMO technology which uses multiple antennas both at the transmitter and the receiver can improve the channel capacity greatly. Combined the MIMO with OFDM, MIMO-OFDM would become the core technology in the future wireless communication system. In MIMO-OFDM systems, the channel state information is needed for the coherent demodulation and space-time decoding. Therefore, channel estimation becomes one of the key technologies of MIMO-OFDM system. In this text, a variety of channel estimation techniques of MIMO-OFDM system are studied and the channel estimation methods based on pilot sequence are discussed emphatically. First of all, the background and current status of MIMO, OFDM technology and multi-path time-varying characteristics of the mobile radio channel are analyzed briefly. Then basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of OFDM system, basic principles, space-time coding techniques and channel capacity of MIMO systems are introduced. Moreover, the basic ideas and implementation details of MIMO-OFDM system are also introduced. Second, the channel estimation methods based on pilot sequence of SISO-OFDM system are studied. The interval between pilot and the common pilot pattern are introduced. The LS, LMMSE channel estimation algorithms, two-dimensional joint channel estimation algorithms and two cascaded one-dimensional channel estimation algorithms based on Wiener filter are studied. The performance of the aforementioned channel estimation methods are analyzed and compared by simulations. Finally, based on the pilot channel estimation techniques for SISO-OFDM system, channel estimation methods for MIMO-OFDM systems including LS, LMMSE and Wiener channel estimation algorithms are investigated. One two-dimensional joint channel estimation method based on Wiener filter is applied in MIMO-OFDM system successfully. The performance of the aforementioned channel estimation methods in different Doppler shift are analyzed and compared by simulations. Two-dimensional channel estimation technology based on Wiener filter is developed too. The excellent performance of this algorithm is shown through simulations. We can see from the simulation results that LS, LMMSE and two cascaded one-dimensional Wiener channel estimation methods are more sensitive to channel changes in time and frequency domain where Doppler frequency shift is large. The faster the channel changes, the more serious performance degrades. However, the two-dimensional joint channel estimation algorithm based on Wiener filter mentioned above can track channel changes in time and frequency domain successfully and shows excellent performance and is more applicable for fast fading channels. 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WiCOM, pp.1-4, June 2010. [55]Jun Wang, Shaoqian Li, and Hui Hao, "Soft-output MMSE MIMO Detector Under MMSE Channel Estimation", IEEE, pp.233-236,2008. [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 数字移动通信系统与技术 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [朱维红]山东大学信息科学与工程学院 [issue] => [email] => shaoshanshan113@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 朱维红 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 81001 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => zhu wei hong [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => shao shan shan [job_no] => [volume_label] => 49320 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => MIMO-OFDM;;导频;;信道估计;;插值;;Wiener滤波 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13864015771 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 邵珊珊 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学信息科学与工程学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 信息科学与工程学院 [title_en] => Research on Channel Estimation Methods in MIMO-OFDM Systems [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => MIMO-OFDM; pilot; channel estimation; interpolation; Wiener filter [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TN919.3 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => channelestimation,interpolation,mimoofdm,wienerfilter,pilot [author_test] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [sure] => 1 [name] => 朱维红 [u_index] => 1 [sys_author_id] => Array ( [0] => 26200 ) [irtag] => 0 [t_index] => 0 [person_id] => 26200 ) ) [sys_author_id_arr] => 26200朱维红 [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => 26200 [sys_author_id] => 26200 [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 83dde6bd811835a533445d60a9ee3b47-1758792032 [hints] => 2 [id] => zKtr32YBFjIhTVEbKpMF [tags] => 0 ) [4] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 建立完善的激励约束机制是解决现代公司中委托代理问题的核心。股权激励作为一种长期激励机制,是降低代理成本,实现激励相容的重要手段,但其效应一直是充满争议的论题。近期席卷全球的金融危机再次证明,在巨大利益驱使下,契约设计的不合理与约束条件的缺失使股权激励更多地趋于福利化,甚至带来巨大的风险隐患。究竟股权激励是解决委托代理问题的手段还是导致委托代理问题的来源?其难以替代的作用与逐渐暴露的缺陷之间的矛盾日益凸显,理论研究者、实践者与政策制定者等开始重新审视股权激励及其相关配套制度。 股权分置改革解决了制约中国资本市场发展的重大制度性缺陷,股权激励制度也以此为契机由探索阶段进入了发展阶段。随着相关政策的不断完善和细化,股权激励被越来越多的中国上市公司采用。但公司自身对激励模式与对象的选择不合理、激励期限与考核指标疏于设计等契约层面因素以及经理人市场不完善等宏观制度因素仍然制约着股权激励的发展。在此关键时期,借鉴西方的股权激励理论与实践,结合中国的特殊国情和制度背景,建立适合中国上市公司的股权激励契约结构与制度体系,具有极为重要的理论意义和实践价值。 股权激励研究的最初观点是基于外生视角把股权激励作为一个独立的外生变量来检验其对公司价值的影响。继而产生的内生视角认为股权激励及其与公司价值的关系是各种因素共同作用的均衡结果,并引入影响因素调节变量。但两者的共同局限是将股权激励作为整体,忽视了其契约结构因素与作用过程。而要探索构建适用于中国上市公司的股权激励制度,应将内生性视角应用于股权激励契约结构的研究,但目前该项研究尚处在初步阶段。本文借鉴经济学与管理学相关理论,提出股权激励契约结构内生性假说,并从契约结构内生视角出发,结合股权激励在中国的实践,构建了中国上市公司股权激励契约合理性实现模型。基于该模型,综合运用理论演绎、比较分析、计量模型、案例研究等方法,重点研究了股权激励关键契约要素(激励模式、激励对象、激励期限与激励条件)设计的合理性及其影响因素,揭示了股权激励契约优化的动态趋势及其与公司价值的联结方式。以此为基础,构建了中国上市公司股权激励制度设计模型,并提出契约优化及内外部约束制度设计的政策建议。 上市公司处于不同的环境中,拥有不同的资源禀赋与能力条件,股权激励的契约结构也应因其自身条件的变化而不同,因此,本文在文献评析与理论分析的基础上,提出契约结构内生性假说,即股权激励并非作为整体而独立存在的,其契约结构在设计过程中受到公司基本特征(所处行业、规模、成长性等)、股权结构、治理机制等因素的影响,而又通过上述因素的调节作用对公司绩效或价值产生效应。基于该假说,提出股权激励契约结构内生视角,既从微观层面深入剖析股权激励契约结构的动态内生性问题,又引入调节变量构建起股权激励契约要素与公司价值之间的桥梁。 从契约结构内生视角出发,本文构建了中国上市公司股权激励契约合理性实现模型,以探究股权激励契约的合理性及其实现途径。股权激励契约合理性是指股权激励契约实现预期效应所应具备的属性,适用性、平衡性、长期性与约束性是合理股权激励契约的关键特征,构成了契约合理性的外延。结合中国的制度环境与上市公司实践,该模型确定激励模式、激励对象、激励期限与激励条件为决定契约合理性的关键要素,并阐释了契约合理性的实现途径,即在既定规则之下,上市公司应根据公司基本特征、股权结构、债权融资与治理结构等内生因素对上述要素进行合理设计与有效实施。此外,该模型强调上述过程是随着制度环境的变化而动态演化的,实现了契约结构内生视角在中国情境下的应用。以此为基础,论文第四章、第五章与第六章分别研究了上市公司对于股权激励关键契约要素设计的合理性及影响因素,并取得了诸多具有重要意义的结论。 股权激励模式的选择是一个利弊博弈的过程,这种博弈不仅在体现在不同发展阶段中的优胜劣汰,也体现在同一阶段中对于不同模式的选择。股权激励模式以股权分置改革为契机实现了从业绩股票、业绩单位、虚拟股票等到股票期限与限制性股票的演化。股票期权与限制性股票凭借相对于其他模式的优势,成为上市公司在发展阶段采用的主要模式,两者在表象层、运作层与核心层三个层面存在诸多差异。公司成长性与股权属性是影响激励模式选择的最主要因素,但其显著性随着时间的推移而变化,反映了上市公司对激励模式选择动机的演化趋势,这种演化既源自于上市公司对股权激励契约合理设计的理性思考,也源自于政策环境因素的发展与成熟。 股权激励对象范围与分布的确定是实现股权激励整体效应最大化的关键环节。中国上市公司股权激励的惠及范围不应仅仅局限于高层管理者,而应以核心利益相关者治理理论为基础,实现一种动态的利益平衡。团队生产理论为确定激励对象的甄选原则提供了方法论基础,通过构建股权激励适用对象甄选模型确定了高层管理者、中层管理者与核心员工应成为现阶段股权激励的主要对象。针对上市公司监事能否纳入股权激励对象范围的焦点问题,通过实证检验发现,因监事股权激励带来的合谋倾向在实践中并未显现,而在其他治理约束因素的调节作用下具有显著的治理效应,因此,单纯将监事排除在激励对象范围之外并不是万全之策,而应从对上市公司治理水平的权衡出发,合理设置监事激励契约的构成。股权激励对象范围的确定具有一定的原则与标准,但激励对象的分布却应根据上市公司的内外部因素进行动态调整,实证结果表明,行业特性是影响激励对象分布的显著性因素,公司规模、成长性、盈利能力与股权属性等因素的影响方向与预期一致,但并不显著。 股权激励期限与激励条件作为约束型契约要素,两者的合理设计能够实现股权激励的时间约束效应与绩效约束效应,也是实现股权激励契约的长期性与约束性特征的理想路径。但在现实中却存在由经营者机会主义行为产生的障碍,尤其是在公司治理不尽完善的情况下,两者呈现出短期化与福利化倾向,与股权激励契约合理性背道而驰。实证检验表明,设置较长的激励期限与严格的激励条件是契约合理性与激励效应实现的重要前提;除法律等外部因素制约之外,债权融资约束、独立董事监督与大股东治理等内生因素对两者具有显著的促进作用,进一步证实了公司内部治理机制的互补效应假说。 上述针对激励模式、激励对象、激励期限与激励条件等关键契约要素的理论分析与实证检验为股权激励契约合理性实现模型提供了丰富的理论与经验证据,也为制度设计模型的构建提供了有力支持。运用制度经济学中契约配置与制度配置的耦合性原理,本文在第七章中构建了以契约结构优化为中心、以内外部约束的整合与运作为主体、以持续改进与动态均衡为特征的中国上市公司股权激励制度设计模型。并详细阐述了围绕股权激励契约优化的内外部约束制度设计,包括以薪酬委员会有效运作、独立董事监督、大股东治理与债权人约束等构成的内部治理约束,以申报审核规定、执行过程控制、信息披露制度、会计处理制度等为主体的政府与行业监管以及以经理人市场、资本市场、产品市场组成的外部市场环境。只有不断优化与完善上市公司股权激励制度,才能真正实现其将激励对象利益与公司利益相结合的“利益趋同效应”。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011170451.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-25 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-23 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 企业管理 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Establishing effective incentive and restraint mechanism is the key to solve the principle-agent problem. As an important long-term incentive mechanism of listed companies, the effect of equity incentive has been a controversial focus in both the theory and practice of community. The recent global financial crisis once again proves the equity-based incentive become benefits because of unreasonable contract and lack of restricted conditions driven by the huge interests. Is equity-based incentive the solution or the source of principal-agent problem? Researchers, practitioners and policy-makers began to rethink the incentive effects of equity-incentive and the supportive system. Non-tradable shares reform solved the major institutional defects of China' capital market and the development stage of equity incentive has already come. With the development of the institutional system, equity incentive has been adopted by more and more Chinese listed companies. But some contract-level and institution-level factors restrict the development of equity incentive. In this critical period, to establish the appropriate contract structure and institutional system to China's listed companies has grate theoretical and practical value. Researchers at home and aboard focused mainly on the effects and influential factors of equity incentive so far. According to the differences in theory basis, research idea and method, the relative researches are divided into two perspectives: Exogenous and Endogenous. Many researches use equity incentive as a whole and neglect its contract structure and process. To research the contract structure of equity incentive in depth is imperative, but this perspective is in the primary stage. This paper uses normative analysis, comparative analysis, empirical analysis and case study, proposes the contract structure endogenous hypothesis referring to evolutionary and institutional economics, and establishes Implementation Model on the Rationality of Equity Incentive Contract in Chinese Listed Companies and Institution Optimization Model from the Contract Structure Endogenous Perspective. This paper also researches the contract structure deeply at the micro level and analysis the institutional design systematically at the macro level. The research established a good foundation for the future study and provides references the development of equity incentive in Chinese listed companies. Listed companies have different resources and conditions in different environment, so their equity incentive plan is also different. Therefore this paper proposes the contract structure endogenous hypothesis through reviewing the literature on equity incentive. The hypothesis advocates equity incentive is not dependent but the structures of it influenced by the characteristics, ownership structure, governance structure and external environment. On basis of that, the contract structure endogenous perspective is proposed to analyze the issue of endogenous dynamics and establish the bridge between equity incentive contract and corporate value by adding moderators. The rationality of China's listed companies'equity incentive contract analysis model is the application of the contract structure endogenous perspective in the context of China. The rationality of equity incentive contract is the properties that necessary to realize its expected effects not only on the long-term incentive for the incentive objects but also on the improvement of performance and value of the companies. Applicable, balanced, long-term and restricted are the main characteristics of the rational equity incentive contract and form the epitaxy of the rationality of equity incentive contract. According to the principles of importance and feasibility, the key contract elements contain incentive model, incentive object, incentive time horizon and incentive condition. These key elements should be designed according to the endogenous factors of listed companies. Implementation Model on the Rationality of Equity Incentive Contract in Chinese Listed Companies is the application of contract structure endogenous perspective. On the basis of this model, this paper focuses on the four key elements and achieves many valuable conclusions. The selection of equity incentive model is a process of weighing not only evolutions in the different stages but also compare in the same stage. Stock option and restricted stock are the two main models of China's listed companies after Non-tradable shares reform. They are different in rights and obligations, valuation, restricted stage and accounting. Different listed company has the tendency to choose them. We adopt data of listed companies that has announced stock incentive plans in china to do the empirical research, and the results show that growth and ownership are the main factors to choose the plan. The reasonable distribution of incentive objects can maximize the incentive effect. Based on core stakeholder theory, the incentive objects should be the owners of key resources and stakeholders. The empirical research shows that industry features and growth capability are the main factors of the distribution. Listed Companies should enforce the effect of strategy location, and make use of other governance mechanisms to ensure equity incentive plans successfully implemented. To ensure the scope of incentive objects is the key to realize selective interests-balance of equity-based incentives, and supervisor equity-based incentives becomes the points at issue. We adopt the Panel Data from 2006-2009 of Listed Companies'in China to do the empirical research. The results show that the Collision Orientation may be induced by supervisor share-hold isn't obvious, but on the contrary, it has positive effects on both the two agency problems and firm value under the effects of the moderators such as executive incentive, independent directors, ownership restriction and debt financing. Therefore, improving corporate governance level is a prerequisite to achieve the effects of supervisor equity-based incentives and to avoid the collision risks effectively. Equity Incentive is an important part to improve listed companies'corporate governance level. Designing reasonable and effective stock option contracts is the key to success. In this paper, we adopt the data of listed companies that have announced and ones have yet implemented stock option plans in china to do the empirical research. The results show that long-term and incentive are the main features of stock option and timeframe and performance condition are the key elements to embody them. Besides external factors, majority shareholders, creditors and independent directors are main restrictive factors to influence the rationality of stock options. We hope the results can supply useful references to China's listed companies and Regulators. The above theoretical analysis and empirical researches related to incentive model, incentive object, incentive timeframe and incentive condition are the convincing proof and explanation of the rationality of equity incentive contract in China's listed companies analysis model. In order to increasing operability, this research establishes equity incentive institutional optimization model for China's listed companies. This model includes contract structure optimization, corporate governance restricted mechanism, government and industry regulation and external environment. Following the suggestions on the four levels, equity incentive will be improved continuously and realize the convergence effects of the interests of both the incentive objects and the listed companies. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200820452 [page] => 215 [title_cn] => 中国上市公司股权激励契约安排与制度设计 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => ① O'Conner, Marleen A. The human capital era:Reconceptualizing corporate law to facilitate labor management cooperation [J]. Cornell Law Review,2003,78:899-965. ①详见2005年8月23日中国证券监督管理委员会、国务院国有资产监督管理委员会、财政部、中国人民银行、商务部联合发布的《关于上市公司股权分置改革的指导意见》。 ①详见《上市公司股权激励管理办法(试行)》(2006年1月1日). ②苏冬蔚,林大庞.股权激励、盈余管理与公司治理[J].经济研究,2010(11):88-99. ①黄之骏,王华.经营者股权激励与企业价值——基于内生性视角的理论分析与经验证据[J].中国会计评论,2006,4(1):29-58. ② Jensen, Michael C, and Meckling, William H. Theory of the firm:Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure [J]. Journal of Financial Economics,1976,3(4):305-360. ① Fama, Eugene F, and Jensen, Michael C. Agency Problems and Residual Claims [J]. Journal of Law & Economics,1983,26(2):327-349. ① Demsetz H. The Structure of Ownership and the Theory of Firm [J].Journal of Law and Economics,1983,26 (2):375-390. ②郝云宏,周翼翔.股权结构与公司绩效关系研究综述——基于内生性和动念性视角[J].经济管理,2010(4):64-71. 郝云宏,周翼翔.基于动态内生性的董事会与公司绩效关系研究综述[J].外国经济与管理,2009(12):58-64. 同时性是指不仅董事会对公司绩效具有直接的促进效应,而且公司绩效也会对董事会产生一定的反馈效应,两者在一个系统中是相互依赖的关系。 ①异质性是指董事会与公司绩效都受到公司契约环境中一些可观测和不可观测因素(如公司文化、管理者道德)的影响,这些外生因素既影响董事会也影响公司绩效,因此,董事会与公司绩效之间的任何相关性都可能是伪相关。 ② Wintoki, M. 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[75]Lambert, R., W. Lanen, and D. 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At present, the steel bar counting mainly depends on manual way in most steel factories of China. This method is low efficiency, high labor intensity and big counting error. It not only reduces the production efficiency and automation of manufacture factories, but also affects enterprise economic benefit since the enterprise could not obtain relevant economic benefit from allowed negative tolerance rolling method. So it is significant to improve counting efficiency and accuracy and realize automatic production. To meet the market requirement, an automatic steel bar counting system based on machine vision and image processing was designed. In the system, a digital camera shot the bar sections and transmitted acquired image data to the industrial computer to do image process and count. When the count reached the set value, the conveyor stop signal was sent and a separation position was indicated on image. Then the operator separated the steel bars by the separation position. Considering specific production environment and image processing requirements, the hard structure was designed and it consisted of digital camera, gigabit network card, industrial computer, lighting system and so on. The Visual C++ was used to develope a convenient and compact application interface and database SQL Sever was used to manage steel bar records. Image processing was a difficulty and emphasis in system developing. The OpenCV image processing library was called in Visual C++ to process the acquired images and realize steel bar counting. In the paper, the image processing comprised image preprocessing, target identification and target track. In the image preprocessing, median filter was used to eliminate noise and smooth the image. The Otsu method was employed to segment the image. For the limit of steel bar shearing, there may be black holes and cracks appear on binary image after image segmentation, which would lead counting error. To solve the problem, a new filling algorithm named eight directions discriminance was used to fill the holes and cracks to improve the image quality and protrude target feature. In target identification, a 16 directions edge detection operator was used to detect the bar edge exactly.16 directions edge convergence algorithm and fast template matching algorithm were used to recognize steel bars of different sizes and then Euclidean distance was used to cluster pixel points that belonged to one bar and determine the bar center. Target identification resolved the steel bar couting of single frame image. But to realized online steel bar counting, the matching and tracking of steel bars in image sequence images was essential; and this is why online counting is better than the couting of bundled bars. At last, feature-based target tracking algorithm was employed to estimate the bar horizontal displacement and track the bars. The test result shows that the precision of steel bar automatic counting system can reach 99.99% and the processing time for each frame is only 0.02s. Field use proves that the system can satisfy the requirement of auto counting and has high practical value and good market prospect. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200812375 [page] => 77 [title_cn] => 基于机器视觉的棒材自动计数系统 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]沙才智.小型钢材的负公差轧制[J].冶金丛刊,1991(3):9-13 [2]章家岩.棒材生产在线计数问题的研究[J].华中科技大学举报(自然科学版),2004,32(9):79-81. [3]徐科.棒材自动计数系统[P].中国专利:03100566.7,2003-6-18 [4]章家岩,金俊,姚有领.基于多传感器技术的螺纹钢在线自动计数方法[J].钢铁研究学报,2006,18(1):59-62. [5]陆成溪.棒材自动分隔计数方法及装置[P].中国专利:200410155405.9,2004-10-29. [6]宋强,徐科,孙浩等.基于图象处理的棒材自动计数技术[J].钢铁,2004,39(5):34-37. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 计算机先进控制技术与系统 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [李现明]山东大学控制科学与工程学院 [issue] => [email] => x.tang@live.cn [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 李现明 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 81103 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => li xian ming [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => tang xiang [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51997 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 图像填充;;边缘聚集;;模板匹配;;目标跟踪 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 18660151393 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 汤翔 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学控制科学与工程学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 控制科学与工程学院 [title_en] => Automatic Steel Bar Counting System Based on Machine Vision [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Image Filling, Edge Convergence, Template Matching, Target Tracking [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TG334.9;TP391.41 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => imagefilling,edgeconvergence,targettracking,templatematching [author_test] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [sure] => 1 [irmagnum] => 0 [u_index] => 1 [name] => 李现明 [sys_author_id] => Array ( [0] => 21914 ) [irtag] => 0 [t_index] => 0 [person_id] => 21914 ) ) [sys_author_id_arr] => 21914李现明 [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => imagefilling,edgeconvergence,目标跟踪,边缘聚集,模板匹配,targettracking,图像填充,templatematching [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => 21914 [sys_author_id] => 21914 [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => f3e88b68fe3aee77b88ed9056c3f7279996805768 [hints] => 3 [id] => Katq32YBFjIhTVEb2omq [tags] => 0 ) [6] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 目的:食管胃底静脉曲张是门脉高压症的严重并发症,一旦破裂可造成大出血,危及患者生命。普萘洛尔(心得安)是目前预防肝硬化静脉曲张破裂出血的最常用药物,需要长期、足量给药。但肝硬化病人长期服用普萘洛尔是否会对患者肝星状细胞活化及肝纤维化产生影响,目前尚不得而知。而对肝硬化有无促进或抑制作用是给肝硬化患者长期服药时需要考虑到的问题。 本研究以肝纤维化的关键细胞—肝星状细胞为研究对象,采用细胞培养和分子生物学技术,观察p-受体阻滞剂普萘洛尔对人肝星状细胞(Hepatic Stellate Cell,HSC)的增殖、凋亡以及致肝纤维化作用的影响,目的是探讨普萘洛尔对肝星状细胞形态和功能的影响,从而阐明肝硬化患者长期服用普萘洛尔对肝纤维化有无潜在的促进或抑制作用。 方法:采用HSC-LX2肝星状细胞系作为活化肝星状细胞的研究模型,在培养的肝星状细胞中分别加入不同浓度的盐酸普萘洛尔(10μmol·L-1、25μmol·L-1、50μmol·L-1、100μmol·L-1),于24小时收集细胞,观察HSC的生长情况。采用水溶性四唑盐-1(Water-Soluble Tetrazolium-1,WST-1)细胞增殖及细胞毒性检测试剂盒检测不同药物浓度下肝星状细胞的增殖情况,流式细胞仪(Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting,FACS)检测细胞凋亡情况。提取细胞蛋白成分,用Western blotting法检测α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-Smooth Muscle Actin,a-SMA)表达水平。提取细胞培养液上清,用酶联免疫吸附测定(Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay,ELISA)法检测转化生长因子-β1(Transforming Growth Factor-β1,TGF-β1)、基质金属蛋白酶-2(Matrix Metalloproteinase-2,MMP-2)以及胶原I、III的表达水平。数值用均值±标准差(x±s)表示,不同组间结果的比较用单因素方差分析(One-way ANOVA),两个组之间的比较采用最小显著差(the Least Significant Difference,LSD) t检验,P<0.05为差异有显著性。 结果:采用WST-1试剂盒检测HSC增殖情况,普萘洛尔可抑制HSC的增殖,且随药物浓度增高,其抑制作用逐渐增强,抑制率由35.51%逐渐上升至95.74%。FACS法检测细胞凋亡,普萘洛尔可促进HSC的凋亡,且呈剂量依赖性,随普萘洛尔浓度增加,HSC凋亡率逐渐升高,各组依次为54.97±0.86%、57.17±1.15%、66.30±1.11%和81.96±1.72%,与对照组相比均有统计学差异。采用Western blotting法检测HSC表达α-SMA的水平,普萘洛尔处理组细胞α-SMA的表达水平(四组灰度比值依次为0.6771±0.0064、0.6899±0.0185、0.6271±0.0091和0.5951±0.0219)明显低于正常对照组(0.7550±0.0157)和生理盐水组(0.7439±0.0165),具有显著性差异,且与剂量具有相关性。采用ELISA法检测细胞培养液中TGF-β1、MMP-2以及胶原Ⅰ、Ⅲ的表达水平,普萘洛尔可浓度依赖性地抑制HSC分泌TGF-β1、MMP-2以及胶原Ⅰ、Ⅲ的水平。 结论: 1.普萘洛尔可使HSC-LX2的活化、增殖受到明显抑制,且呈浓度依赖性,其发挥作用可能是通过与β-AR结合实现的。 2.普萘洛尔可使HSC-LX2的凋亡率明显升高,且呈浓度依赖性,提示普萘洛尔可能通过与β-AR结合促进HSC凋亡 3.普萘洛尔可浓度依赖性地抑制HSC-LX2表达α-SMA和分泌TGF-β1、MMP-2以及Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原。 上述结果提示肝硬化患者长期服用普萘洛尔可能具有减缓肝纤维化、抑制细胞外基质产生并继而降低肝窦内阻力的作用。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223016.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-21 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-19 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 临床医学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Objective:The high incidence and high mortality of liver cirrosis have become worldwide problems. The gastroesophageal variceal bleeding induced by portal hypertension is the leading cause of deaths in patients with liver cirrosis. Propranolol is the first-line drug to prevent gastroesophageal variceal bleeding which needs to be taken for long term with enough doses. However, there is no research on its effects on the activation of hepatic stellate cells and hepatic fibrosis after long-term administration. It needs to be considered that whether propranolol can promote or inhibit liver cirrosis when patients take it for a long time. This study investigates the effects and mechanisms ofβ-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol on human hepatic stellate cells through in vitro observation of propranolol on proliferation, apoptosis and fibrogenesis of cultured HSC-LX2, aiming to explore whether there is any potential stimulatory or inhibitory effects of propranolol on hepatic fibrosis after long-term administration. Methods:HSC-LX2 human hepatic stellate cell line was chosen as the study model of the activated HSC. Hepatic stellate cells were cultured in medium containing different concentrations of propranolol (10μmol·L-1,25μmol·L-1, 50μmol·L-1, 100μmol·L-1), and cells were collected at 24h. The cell growth and proliferation were assessed via water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay kit at different concentrations. The apoptosis of HSC-LX2 cells were detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The levels of TGF-β1, MMP-2, collagenⅠand collagenⅢreleased from the cultured HSCs were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of a-SMA was detected by Western blotting. Data were presented as x±s, comparisons among three or more groups were made by one-way ANOVA followed by LSD t test and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:Propranolol inhibited the proliferation of HSCs, the inhibitory ratio increased from 35.51%(10μmol·L-1) to 95.74%(100μmol·L-1). The apoptosis of propranolol groups(54.97±0.86%,57.17±1.15%,66.30±1.11% and 81.96±1.72%) were higher than that of control group. The expression levels of a-SMA in propranolol groups(0.6771±0.0064,0.6899±0.0185,0.6271±0.0091 and 0.5951±0.0219) were lower than that of control group. Propranolol decreased the release levels of TGF-β1, MMP-2, collagenⅠand collagenⅢmeasured by ELISA, concentration dependently. Conclusions: 1.Propranolol inhibited the activation and proliferation of HSCs, concentration dependently. It might play the role through combination with (3-adrenoreceptors. 2.Propranolol promoted the apoptosis of HSCs, concentration dependently. It might play the role by combining withβ-adrenoreceptors. 3.Propranolol also decreased the secretion of TGF-β1, MMP-2, collagenⅠand collagenⅢ, concentration dependently. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 内科学消化病学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张春清]山东省立医院消化科 [issue] => [email] => robert_feng@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张春清 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100706 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => zhang chun qing [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => feng bao bao [job_no] => [volume_label] => 50662 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 肝星状细胞;;肝纤维化;;普萘洛尔;;细胞增殖;;细胞凋亡 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15966053097 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 冯宝宝 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东省立医院消化科 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 药学院 [title_en] => The Effects of Propranolol on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Fibrogenesis of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => hepatic stellate cell;hepatic fibrosis;propranolol;cell proliferation;apoptosis [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R575.2 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => apoptosis,hepaticfibrosis,cellproliferation,hepaticstellatecell,propranolol [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => hepaticstellatecell,细胞凋亡,apoptosis,hepaticfibrosis,cellproliferation,肝纤维化,普萘洛尔,细胞增殖,propranolol,肝星状细胞 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => cd38f9b719ff5860592ea58846b80200779522521 [hints] => 3 [id] => 4qtq32YBFjIhTVEb-Y49 [tags] => 0 ) [7] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 利用原位聚合和溶液共混的方式制备出了聚丙烯腈基碳纳米管复合材料。使用傅立叶变换红外光谱仪(FTIR)、热重分析仪(TG)、扫描电镜(SEM)、透射电镜(TEM)、R/SCC同轴圆柱体流变仪、X-射线衍射仪(XRD)、差示扫描热量仪(DSC)等测试方法研究了碳纳米管纯化前后的结构与性能的变化,并且利用以上分析手段研究了碳纳米管对聚丙烯腈基碳纳米管复合材料的结构和性能的影响,利用Fluke 1508型绝缘电阻测试仪测试复合薄膜的表面电阻率 研究发现,利用浓硝酸在常温下可以很好的除去碳纳米管(CNTs)中的杂质,同时在没有破坏碳纳米管本身优良的长径比结构的前提下接枝上COOH、OH基团。同时对碳纳米管在不同溶剂中的溶解程度进行了研究,结果表明,碳纳米管在DMAc中分散性最好,碳纳米管在不同溶剂中分散性为:DMAc>DMSO>DMF。 对原位聚合法制备的复合材料进行了转化率及结构形态的研究,结果表明:碳纳米管对复合材料的转化率产生影响,随着碳纳米管含量的增加,反应转化率逐渐升高,但当含量高于0.3%时聚合反应的转化率开始下降;通过对制得的复合材料进行FTIR、DSC、XRD测试可以看出,PAN可以有效的接枝到碳纳米管上使聚合粉料的预氧化温度提前,放热量和放热速率均降低,这有效的避免了预氧化过程中的集中放热;碳纳米管使其结晶程度也有所减弱,但并没有改变聚合物的结晶晶型,只是有序度改变了;对复合薄膜的断面进行SEM观察,结果表明,PAN基复合材料的导电性能明显提高,碳纳米管的单根分散为增强复合材料提供了可能。 通过溶液共混法制备复合溶液并对其流变性能进行了研究。结果表明,在低剪切速率下,随着碳纳米管含量的增加,复合溶液的表观粘度出现减小趋势,但当其含量超过0.5%时,复合溶液表观粘度又出现增大趋势,这证实了纳米粒子在含量较低时,增稠作用只有在较高剪切速率下才能体现出来;并且在碳纳米管含量较低时,随着测试温度的升高,溶液表观粘度的减小趋势减弱,说明此时溶液粘度对温度表现的敏感;随着碳纳米管含量的进一步提高,溶液的粘度逐渐增大,结构化程度提高,物理稳定性变差,可纺性难度增大,但整体变化不大,其对剪切速率的变得敏感。 对复合材料进行了DSC测试可以看出,溶液共混同样可以改善复合材料的热性能,减少复合材料集中放热的可能;通过XRD测试表明,预氧化后复合材料的结晶峰由2θ≈17°转移到20≈25°附近,这是代表材料芳构化结构的峰,说明复合材料在较低的预氧化温度下就完成了很好的环化而纯PAN在该处的峰则不十分明显。两种材料经400℃低温碳化后,在10°~40°之间均产生了一个肩峰,说明在400℃下材料均已完成环化作用,二者的不同只是体现为材料有序区与无序区分布的不同。 对材料进行FTIR、TEM研究表明,碳纳米管在复合薄膜中主要以物理结合形式存在,但在预氧化阶段对环化有促进作用,C≡N和CH2等一些主要吸收特征峰逐渐减弱并消失,而C=C和C=N基团的伸缩振动峰逐渐出现并增强,同时复合薄膜中的C≡N降低量明显高于纯PAN的。当碳纳米管的含量达到2%时,复合薄膜的环化率达到70.41%,而纯PAN环化率仅为20.24%,碳化阶段碳纳米管对材料的影响不大;碳纳米管在复合材料中部分呈单根分散状态,但也有很多团聚结构存在 对复合薄膜的表面电阻率的研究表明,当碳纳米管含量达到5%时,复合薄膜的表面电阻率由大于104MΩ迅速变为5.74 MΩ,但碳纳米管含量再增加时电阻率变化不大,说明碳纳米管一旦在薄膜材料中形成网络结构,材料的导电性能就迅速增强。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011222992.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-09 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-24 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 材料学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => In this paper polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composite were produced by insitu polymerization and solution blending. Effects of CNTs content on the structure and the performance of composite were studied. The structure and proformance of CNTs before and after treated with structures and properties of composite were observed, which were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra (LRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), R/SCC coaxial cylinder rheometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The surface resistivity of composite film was tested by using Fluke 1508 type insulation resistance tester. It has been found that we can remove the impurities of CNTs by using nitric acid (65%) in room temperature very well, and can graft-COOH,-OH group onto the CNTs whitout disrupting the excellent length-diameter ratio stucture of CNTs. The dispersion for CNTs in different solvent was tested as follows:dimethylacetamide (DMAc)>dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)>dimethyl formamide (DMF) in room temperature. Composites which produced by insitu polymerization were studied and found some phenomenon as follows:with the increase of the content of CNTs, the reactions conversion increased gradually, but when the content reached to 0.3%, the conversion began to decline; at the same time, the preoxidation temperature of polymer was in advance because of CNTs, and alleviated the exothermic reaction, all of which would improve the peoperty of PAN; in some extent, it hindered polymer crystallization, but the structure and crystal of polymer could change. The investigation on the composites solution rheology showed that the viscosity reduces fristly and then increases with the CNTs content increases, which was produced by solution blending. Solution viscosity became lower when the CNTs content achieved 0.5%, but in high shear rate this phenomenon disappeared, this indicated that thickening role can be reflected with low content of CNTs. The viscosity and the structure viscous index became higher, the Non-Newtonian index was smaller and the physical stability was worse while the content of CNTs was higher. The solution was temperature-sensitive with the low content of CNTs but was tended to be shearing-sensitive with the higher one. The analysis of DSC、XRD showed that the carbon nanotubes could improve the thermal properties of composite materials, and alleviated the exothermic reaction. During the preoxidation process the position of crystallization of composite was varied from 20≈16°to 29≈25°, which suggested the structure of aromatization appear; in addition, they produced a shoulder peak at about 20≈10°~40°in carbonization stage, the cyclization was completed, it had different distribution of the order and the disorder region. The analysis of FTIR showed that during the preoxidation process the stretching vibrations of nitrile (C≡N) and the methane group (CH2) decreased and nearly disappeared such as C=C and C=N during the preoxidation process(255℃), which represented the ladder structure appeared and became stronger gradually. At the same time the dope of C=N group in composite film decreased quickly than that the formed pure PAN, and the cycilzation rate of film increased from 20.24% to 70.41%, when the content of CNTs was 2%, however, the effect of CNTs was not basically discovered in carbonization stage (400℃). On one hand, the part of carbon nanotubes in the composites was in a single dispersion state, on the other hand, the aggregate structure of the carbon nanotubes was found. When the content of CNTs reached to 5%. the surface resistivity of composite film reduced to 5.74 MΩfrom> 104 MΩquickly, and it has a little change with the content of CNTs increase. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200811985 [page] => 89 [title_cn] => 聚丙烯腈基碳纳米管复合材料的制备与研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]董纪震.合成纤维生产工艺学(下册)[M].北京:中国纺织出版社,1991. [2]Chand S. Review carbon fibers for composites[J]. Journal of materials science,2000.35(6):1303-1313. [3]张家杰.国内外碳纤维研究现状及发展趋势[J].化工技术经济,2005,23(4):12-15.19. [4]Basovar YV. HamadaY, Miyashita K. Effect of oxidation-reduction surface treatment on the electrochemical behavior of PAN-based carbon fibers[J]. Electrochemistry Communications,1999, (1):540-544. 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Spearman相关分析显示发生结直肠肝转移的患者结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin表达与肝转移灶细胞核β-catenin表达有显著相关性(r=0.499,P<0.001). 3.x2检验结果显示结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin表达与年龄(P<0.001)、病理组织类型(P=0.01)、浸润深度(P<0.001)、淋巴结转移(P=0.021)、肝转移(P<0.001)及结直肠癌TNM分期(P<0.001)有关。 4.x2检验显示,结直肠癌同时性肝转移与年龄(P=0.01)、肿瘤大小(P<0.001)、肿瘤分化程度(P<0.001)、浸润深度(P<0.001)、淋巴结转移(P<0.001)及浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达(P<0.001)有关。 5. Logistic多因素回归分析提示,年龄(P=0.003)、肿瘤大小(P<0.001)、浸润深度(P=0.001)、肿瘤分化程度(P=0.031)及浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达(P<0.001)是结直肠癌肝转移独立危险因素。 结论 1.发生结直肠同时性肝转移患者结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达更为明显。 2.发生结直肠肝转移的患者结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin表达与肝转移灶细胞核β-catenin表达呈正相关关系。 3.结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin表达与年龄、肿瘤病理类型、浸润深度、淋巴结转移、肝转移和TNM分期有关。 4.结直肠癌同时性肝转移与年龄、肿瘤大小、肿瘤分化程度、浸润深度、淋巴结转移和浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin表达有关;年龄、肿瘤大小、肿瘤分化程度、浸润深度和浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达是结直肠癌肝转移的独立危险因素。 5.结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达与同时性肝转移密切相关,细胞核β-catenin过表达可能是一个有价值的预测肝转移的预测因子。 意义 结直肠癌肝转移是影响结直肠癌患者预后的重要因素,结直肠癌肝转移的早期预测及诊断对指导治疗,改善患者预后有重要的意义。该研究是基于临床和病理资料来阐明结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达与同时性肝转移关系的研究。本研究的临床意义在于,我们发现,结直肠癌浸润前沿细胞核β-catenin过表达与同时性肝转移密切相关,我们提供了一个可能有效预测结直肠癌肝转移的预测因子。 第二部分 CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路对结肠癌HT29细胞E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物表达的影响及其机制研究 研究背景与目的 结直肠癌患者主要的死亡原因是局部复发和肝脏转移,人们对结直肠癌肝转移的机制进行了大量研究。结直肠癌肝转移的步骤包括肿瘤细胞粘附性能的改变、肿瘤细胞脱离原发灶并降解细胞外基质、肿瘤细胞局部浸润及脉管浸润、肿瘤细胞在循环中播散和免疫逃逸、肿瘤细胞血管内栓塞、肿瘤细胞在新的微环境重新生长及肿瘤血管生成等。每一个步骤都涉及多种分子事件,研究这些分子事件有助于理解结直肠癌肝转移机制,并为结直肠癌肝转移的预防和治疗提供理论依据。 目前对于肿瘤转移机制的解释有3种学说,即“种子与土壤”学说、“解剖-机械”学说和“信号或归巢”学说。“信号或归巢”学说认为肿瘤细胞高表达特异的趋化因子受体,宿主器官则表达其相应的趋化因子配体,肿瘤细胞借助趋化因子配体与其受体的特异性结合力,实现组织器官的特异性转移。“信号或归巢”学说最初用于解释造血干细胞特异性归巢于骨髓,2001年Muller等首次发现,人乳腺癌组织中和乳腺癌细胞系高表达趋化因子受体CXCR4,而在乳腺癌最常见的转移部位如淋巴结、肺、肝脏和骨髓等部位则高表达其配体基质衍生因子-1(Stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1),并且从这些组织提取的蛋白对乳腺癌细胞有明显的趋化作用,说明SDF-1及其受体在决定乳腺癌转移部位上起着非常重要的作用。 SDF-1属于趋化因子CXC亚家族,CXCR4为G蛋白偶联的跨膜受体蛋白超家族中的一员,是SDF-1的唯一受体。前已知超过23种人类的恶性肿瘤细胞有CXCR4表达,CXCR4/SDF-1生物轴在乳腺癌、恶性黑色素瘤、卵巢癌、前列腺癌、膀胱癌、食管癌等肿瘤侵袭转移过程中的作用也得到证实。近年来很多研究报道指出趋化因子SDF-1与其特异性受体CXCR4在结直肠癌的肝转移过程中发挥重要作用。 E-cadherin是定位于细胞间粘附连接的一次跨膜单链糖蛋白,相邻细胞E-cadherin的胞外域可相互结合形成拉链样结构,介导同型细胞间连接。E-cadherin浆内部分通过α、β、γ-catenin与细胞骨架结合,构成cadherin-catenin复合物,介导细胞粘附和信号转导,参与调节组织发生和形态分化,对细胞识别、迁移、归类等行为发挥重作用。研究表明,E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物与结直肠癌的侵袭转移关系密切。 我们前面的研究表明,β-catenin与结直肠癌同时性肝转移关系密切,基于我们的研究发现和以往对CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路及E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物与结直肠癌侵袭转移关系的研究,我们认为CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路与E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物之间可能存在联系。本研究检测了SDF-1对结肠癌HT29细胞系E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物表达的影响。同时,我们还检测了E-cadherin/β-catenin mRNA水平的变化及磷酸肌醇3激酶/蛋白激酶B(P13K/AKT)和β-catenin磷酸化变化,探讨CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路影响E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物表达可能的分子机制。 方法 1.MTT法检测SDF-1对结肠癌HT29细胞增殖的影响。 2.Transwell体外侵袭实验检测SDF-1对HT29细胞侵袭能力的影响。 3.免疫细胞化学法检测SDF-1对HT29细胞E-cadherin和β-catenin表达的影响。 4.反转录PCR(RT-PCR)检测SDF-1对HT29细胞E-cadherin mRNA和β-catenin mRNA表达的影响。 5.蛋白免疫印迹法(Western blotting)检测HT29细胞PI3K/AKT和β-catenin磷酸化变化。 结果 1.SDF-1作用于HT29细胞48h后,各组增殖并无明显差异。72h后20ng/mL和40ng/mLSDF-1组HT29细胞增殖较对照组明显增加,增殖率分别为129%和135%,统计学上有显著性差异(P=0.034和P=0.026)。而预先用AMD3100处理过的HT29细胞,SDF-1促进增殖的作用不明显,单独用AMD3100处理的HT29细胞增殖与对照组无差别。 2. SDF-1作用于HT29细胞24h后10ng/mL.20ng/mL和40ng/mL3组迁移细胞较对照组(92.3±12.4)均明显增加,迁移细胞数分别为149±13.3(P=0.041),161±13.5(P=0.023)和187.5±14(P<0.001)。预先用AMD3100处理过的HT29细胞侵袭能力无明显变化,单独用AMD3100处理的HT29细胞迁移细胞与对照组无差别。 3.免疫细胞化学检测显示SDF-1作用48h后,20ng/mL组和40ng/mL组HT29细胞E-cadherin表达较对照组显著下降(P=0.044和P<0.001)。而预先用AMD3100处理过的HT29细胞,SDF-1作用后未见E-cadherin表达下降。单独用AMD3100处理HT29细胞E-cadherin表达亦未出现明显变化。 RT-PCR分析显示,20ng/mL和40ng/mLSDF-1作用HT29细胞48h后,E-cadherin mRNA水平显著下降(P=0.033和P<0.001)。预先用AMD3100处理过的HT29细胞,SDF-1作用后未见E-cadherin mRNA表达下降,单独用AMD3100处理的HT29细胞E-cadherin mRNA表达亦未出现明显变化。 4.免疫细胞化学检测显示,20ng/mL组和40ng/mL组SDF-1处理48h后HT29细胞的β-catenin表达均显著下降(P=0.031和P<0.001)。尽管预先用AMD3100处理过的HT29细胞经SDF-1作用48h后β-catenin表达亦有所下降,但差异不明显。单独用AMD3100处理的HT29细胞β-catenin表达亦未出现明显变化。 RT-PCR分析显示,SDF-1作用48h后,20ng/mL组和40ng/mL组HT29细胞β-catenin mRNA水平均显著下降(P=0.037和P<0.001)。预先用AMD3100处理过的HT29细胞SDF-1作用后未见β-catenin mRNA表达下降,单独用AMD3100处理的HT29细胞β-catenin mRNA水平亦未出现明显变化。 5. SDF-1 (20ng/mL)作用HT29细胞lmin后,PI3K/AKT和β-catenin即发生磷酸化变化,β-catenin磷酸化在第5min时明显增强,而PI3K/AKT磷酸化则在第15min时明显增强。β-catenin磷酸化高峰出现在第30min,之后明显的β-catenin磷酸化一直维持48h; PI3K/AKT磷酸化高峰出现在第15-60min,持续2h,之后逐渐减弱。分别用Ong/mL,5ng/mL,20ng/mL,40ng/mL和100ng/mL的SDF-1处理HT29细胞30min。结果显示,PI3K/AKT和β-catenin磷酸化与SDF-1浓度有关,随着浓度增高,二者磷酸化亦逐渐增强,100ng/mL处理处理HT29细胞30min时PI3K/AKT和β-catenin磷酸化最明显。 6.应用AMD3100和LY294002分别阻断CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路和PI3K/AKT信号分子后发现,AMD3100能够阻断HT29细胞PI3K/AKT和β-catenin磷酸化,LY294002也能够阻断PI3K/AKT和β-catenin磷酸化。 结论 1. SDF-1能够促进人结肠癌HT29细胞的生长; 2. SDF-1能够增强人结肠癌HT29细胞侵袭能力; 3. CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路参与了诱导HT29细胞E-cadherin/β-catenin复合物表达下降; 4. PI3K/AKT和β-catenin磷酸化及E-cadherin/β-catenin mRNA下调可能是SDF1诱导HT29细胞E-cadherin/β-catenin下调的重要原因; 5.CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路引起HT29细胞β-catenin磷酸化是通过PI3K/AKT实现的,β-catenin是PI3K/AKT的下游效应因子。 意义 本研究通过研究CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路对HT29细胞E-cadherin/β-catenin表达的影响以及导致E-cadherin/β-catenin表达变化的机制,提出了一种影响E-cadherin/β-catenin表达变化及CXCR4/SDF-1信号通路促进HT29细胞侵袭转移的可能的分子机制。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011170291.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-11 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-19 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 外科学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => PARTⅠ Nuclearβ-catenin Overexpression at Invasive Front in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with Synchronous Liver Metastasis Background and objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. The incidence of CRC in the world is increasing with a rate of 2%. Death usually results from uncontrolled metastatic disease. The most common organ metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is liver. Although the 5 year survival rate for patients with local CRC approaches 90%, the 5 year survival rate for metastasis patients decreases to 19%. Over 20%-40% of patients with colorectal carcinoma either have liver metastases at presentation and 50% will subsequently develop them after CRC radical operation. The metastasis rate of hepatic metastasis in clinical colorectal cancer patients is 5.5%-33.3%. The metastasis rate of hepatic metastasis in dead CRC is 45%-71%. Therefore, early detection of liver metastasis in CRC is especially important to improve patient survival rate. Several studies have investigated the risk factors influencing liver metastasis. Histopathologically, the presence of venous invasion, a deeper level of invasion, less differentiated carcinoma cells, and the presence of lymph node metastasis have been reported to be risk factors. The biological factors related to liver metastasis have been identified as Epidermal growth factor (EGF), Actin-related protein2 (Arp2), Transforming growth factor-a (TGF-a), Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) and Cluster of differentiation 10 (CD 10). Invasive tumor front (ITF) is defined as the 3-6 layers tumour cells at the front edge or the scattered tumour groups between tumour and host tissue or organ. It has been suggested that CRC might show cellular dedifferentiation in the invasive front area, with loss of an epithelial phenotype and a gain of a mesenchymal phenotype, which facilitates invasive and metastatic growth of originally differentiated cancer cells. The malignant progression is epithelial-mesenchymal transition. One of the key oncogenic proteins that might drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal carcinogenesis isβ-catenin.β-catenin is a key component of the adherens junctions, necessary for homophilic cell-cell adhesions.β-catenin in cytoplasm and membrane binds with the intracellular domain of E-cadherin, which is a cell-to-cell adhesion molecule, and to play a significant role in maintaining the normal tissue architecture. In addition to the membrane associated pool,β-catenin plays a role in cell-signaling and gene transcription. In the absence of a Wnt signal, a multiprotein complex, composed of the adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin, and glycogen synthase kinase 3βpromotesβ-catenin phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation. In the presence of a Wnt signal,β-catenin is no longer degraded and translocates to the nucleus where, interacting with lymphoid enhancing factor/T-cell factor, it promotes transcription of several target genes involved in cell proliferation. The reduced cell adhesion further sustains Wnt signaling, stimulating cell migration and metastasis formation. Previous studies indicated that the change of nuclearβ-catenin expression correlated with liver metastasis in CRC. A recent study demonstrated thatβ-catenin mRNA was markedly elevated in the CRC cells of the invasion front. Elevation of mRNA was paralleled by increased nuclear and cytoplasmicβ-catenin protein concentrations. These data suggested that increased nuclearβ-catenin may play an important role in CRC invasion and metastasis. Due to previous pathological proof, it is tempting to speculate that nuclearβ-catenin expression in CRC may represent decisive aspects in CRC invasion and metastasis. However, the correlation between nuclearβ-catenin expression in CRC and synchronous liver metastasis was not characterized up to now. Therefore, we examined nuclearβ-catenin expression in CRC and liver metastatic lesions. Meanwhile, we investigated the association between nuclearβ-catenin expression and clinicopathological data to determine its importance as a predictor of liver metastasis. Methods Clinicopathological data from 486 patients (144 cases with liver metastasis and 342 cases without liver metastasis) were reviewed.β-catenin expression in colorectal cancer and liver metastatic lesions were examined by immunohistochemistry. The association of nuclearβ-catenin overexpression in primary tumours and liver metastatic lesions was evaluated. Meanwhile, the relationship between nuclearβ-catenin overexpression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. Finally, univariate analysis and logistic multivariate regression analysis were adopted to discriminate risk factors of liver metastasis. Results 1.β-catenin expression was observed in all the CRC specimens. Nuclearβ-catenin overexpression at invasive front in primary tumour was observed in 103 patients with liver metastasis and 100 patients without liver metastasis (71.5% vs.29.3%; P< 0.001). 2. Nuclearβ-catenin overexpression in metastatic lesions was noted in 132 patients (91.6%). Spearman rank correlation analysis demonstrated that nuclearβ-catenin expression in primary tumours had a positive correlation with that in metastatic lesions (r= 0.499, P< 0.001). 3.χ2 test demonstrated thatβ-catenin overexpression at invasive front in CRC is different significantly for age (P< 0.001), type of tumour (P= 0.01), tumour invasion depth (P< 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P= 0.021), liver metastasis (P < 0.001) and TNM stage (P< 0.001). 4.χ2 test demonstrated that liver metastasis is accociated with age (P= 0.01), tumour size (P< 0.001), tumour cell differentiation (P< 0.001), tumour invasion depth (P < 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P< 0.001), and nuclearβ-catenin overexpression (P< 0.001). 5. Logistic multivariate regression analysis indicated that the independent risk factors for synchronous liver metastasis are age (P= 0.003), tumour size (P< 0.001), tumour invasion depth (P= 0.001), tumour cell differentiation (P= 0.031), and nuclearβ-catenin overexpression (P< 0.001). Conclusions 1. Overexpression of nuclearβ-catenin in CRC with liver metastasis is more evident. 2. In patients with CRC liver metastasis nuclearβ-catenin expression at invasive front in CRC had a positive correlation with that in metastatic lesions. 3. Nuclearβ-catenin overexpression at invasive front in CRC is different for associated with age, type of tumour, tumour invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis and TNM stage. 4. Overexpression of nuclearβ-catenin at the invasive front is accociated with age, tumour size, tumour cell differentiation, tumour invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, and nuclearβ-catenin overexpression. 5. Age, tumour size, tumour invasion depth, tumour cell differentiation, and nuclearβ-catenin overexpression are independent risk factors for synchronous liver metastasis. Overexpression of nuclearβ-catenin at invasive front in colorectal cancer is strongly associated with liver metastasis and may be a promising predictor of liver metastasis. Significance This study elucidated the relationship between nuclearβ-catenin overexpression in CRC and synchronous liver metastasis based on clinical and pathological data. The clinical significance of the current study is that we provided a promising predictor for liver metastasis in CRC. PARTⅡ Influence of CXCR4/SDF-1 aixs on E-cadherin/β-catenin complex in HT29 colon cancer cells and its mechanisms Background and objective The main reason leading to death for colorectal cancer patients is liver metastasis. A great deal of studies have been done to investigate the risk factors influencing liver metastasis. The metastatic process of CRC consists of a series of individual steps, all of which are required to establish metastatic tumours. Although a number of molecules have been proved to be implicated in the metastasis of cancer cells, the precise mechanisms determining the directional migration and invasion of CRC cells into specific organs remain to be established. New evidence indicated that chemokines play a major role in this process of organ-selective metastasis. Chemokines are signaling molecules that function in myriad cell trafficking events. It is well known that chemokines and their receptors have been known to be involved in the "homing" of hematopoietic cells to specific organs as a physiological mechanism. Homing is also functional in neoplastic cells. Recent studies have indicated that tumor cells express patterns of chemokine receptors and that corresponding ligands are specifically expressed in organs to which these cancers commonly metastasize. For example, Muller et al demonstrated that breast cancer cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4, whereas the specific ligand CXCL12, also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1(SDF-1), has been found at elevated levels in lymph nodes, lung, liver and bone marrow that represent the first metastatic sites of breast cancer. Others also speculated on the involvement of CXCR4 in the metastatic tumor growth of different types of malignancies, including CRC SDF-1 is expressed in stromal cells, including fibroblasts and endothelial cells, and interacts specifically with the seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4. Recent studies showed that chemotaxis effect of CXCR4/SDF-1 axis is related with lymph node and liver metastasis of CRC. Although there is evidence that the CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling pathway is involved in the metastatic process of CRC, the precise molecular mechanism underlying SDF-1-induced chemotaxis effect has not been completely elucidated. E-cadherin, a transmembrane glycoprotein located at the adheren junction, mediates calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. C terminus of E-cadherin is linked toα-catenin and actin cytoskeleton through the association withβ-catenin. Strong cell-cell interactions result in a tight cell cluster as a community, and constrain cells from moving away. It has been shown that dysregulation of E-cadherin/β-catenin complex expression is responsible for the invasion and metastasis of CRC, indicating that CXCR4/SDF-1 axis is correlated with E-cadherin/β-catenin complex expression in invasion and metastasis of CRC. CXCR4/SDF-1 axis-mediated chemotaxis effect is crucial in organ-selective metastasis and E-cadherin/β-catenin plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Relatively little is known about the role E-cadherin/β-catenin plays in CXCR4/SDF-1 axis-mediated tumour cells' invasion and metastasis. Based on our previous study, this study was to observe whether CXCR4/SDF-1 axis can alter E-cadherin/β-catenin expression in HT29 colon cancer cell line. In addition, the E-cadherin/β-catenin mRNA expression level was measured and the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT andβ-catenin was examined to provide insights into the mechanism underlying the change in E-cadherin/β-catenin expression. Methods 1. MTT method was used to evaluate the influence of SDF-1 on HT29 cells proliferation. 2. Transwell invasion assay was adopted to tested the effect of SDF-1 on HT29 cells' invasive ability. 3. The effect of SDF-1 on E-cadherin/β-catenin expression was examined by immunocytochemistry. 4. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was adopted to examine E-cadherin/β-catenin mRNA level. 5. The phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT andβ-catenin induced by SDF-1 was tested by western blotting. Results 1. The viability of HT29 cells in any experiment groups was not different from that in control group 48 h after incubated with SDF-1. The cells grew much faster with a proliferation rate of 129% and 135%, respectively (P=0.034和P=0.026) 72 h after incubated with SDF-1 at the concentrations of 20 ng/mL and 40ng/mL. AMD3100 plus SDF-1 inhibited the cell growth. AMD3100 alone had no effect on cell proliferation. 2. After 24 h incubation, SDF-1 markedly enhanced the migration ability of HT29 cells compared with the control group at 10 ng/mL (149±13.3 vs 92.3±12.4; P = 0.041),20 ng/mL (161±13.5 vs 92.3±12.4; P= 0.023) and 40 ng/mL (187.5±14 vs 92.3±12.4; P< 0.001). AMD3100 inhibited the migration of HT29 cells. AMD3100 alone had no effect on cell migration. 3. A significant decrease in E-cadherin expression in HT29 cells was found in 20 and 40 ng/mL groups after 48 h (P= 0.044 and P< 0.001, respectively). HT29 cells treated with AMD3100 prior to administration of SDF-1 did not show a decrease in E-cadherin expression compared with the SDF-1 groups. AMD3100 alone had no effect on E-cadherin expression. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that E-cadherin mRNA decreased after 48 h incubation with SDF-1 at 20 and 40 ng/mL (P= 0.033 and P< 0.001, respectively). The administration of AMD3100 inhibited the decrease in E-cadherin mRNA. AMD3100 alone had no influence on E-cadherin mRNA. 4. After incubation with SDF-1 (20 and 40 ng/mL) for 24 h,β-catenin expression in HT29 cells decreased. But the difference had no statistical significance.β-catenin was downregulated significantly after 48 h at 20 and 40 ng/mL (P= 0.031 and P < 0.001, respectively). Even thoughβ-catenin decreased slightly in cells treated with AMD3100, the difference was not significant. AMD3100 alone had no influence on P-catenin expression. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated thatβ-catenin mRNA decreased after 24 h incubation with SDF-1. But the difference had no statistical significance.β-catenin mRNA downregulated significantly after 48 h at 20 and 40 ng/mL (P= 0.037 and P< 0.001, respectively). The down-regulation ofβ-catenin mRNA was inhibited by AMD3100. AMD3100 alone did not influence expression of P-catenin mRNA. 5. SDF-1 induced an increase in phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and P-catenin after 1 minute. Activation ofβ-catenin was evident at 5 min and the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT was significant at 15 min. The peak of P-catenin phosphorylation was observed at 30 min. Then, evident phosphorylation of P-catenin lasted for 2 d. The peak phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT occurred at 15-60 min, lasted up to 2 h, and then slowly declined. HT29 cells were treatment with SDF-1 at 0,5,10, 20,40 and 100 ng/mL for 30 min which showed that the administration of SDF-1 for 30 min induced a dose-dependent increase in PI3K/AKT and P-catenin phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT andβ-catenin was observed at a minimal concentration of 5 ng/mL SDF-1 and reached maximal level at 100 ng/mL. 6. AMD3100 inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT andβ-catenin. Further study demonstrated that administration of LY294002 prior to SDF-1 also prevented the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT andβ-catenin. Conclusions 1.SDF-1 enhanced viability of HT29 colon cancer cells; 2. SDF-1 promoted migration of HT29 colon cancer cells; 3. CXCR4/SDF-1 axis is involved in down-regulation of E-cadherin/β-catenin in HT29 colon cancer cells; 4. Phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT andβ-catenin and down-regulation of E-cadherin/β-catenin mRNA are involed in SDF-1-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin/β-catenin expression; 5. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT prevented phosphorylation of SDF-1-inducedβ-catenin and P-catenin may be a down-stream effector of PI3K/AKT. Significance To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first that analyzed the relationship between CXCR4/SDF-1 axis and E-cadherin/p-catenin complex. We provided a possible explanation for CXCR4/SDF-1 axis-induced invasion and metastasis in HT29 colon cancer cells. Moreover, we also provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for the change in E-cadherin/p-catenin. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200820733 [page] => 146 [title_cn] => β-catenin在结直肠癌侵袭转移中的作用及其相关分子机制研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => 1.万德森,陈功.结直肠癌的流行病学及其危险因素研究近况.实用癌症杂志,2000,5:220-222. 2.夏振龙.大肠癌肝转移的发生率及临床特点.中国实用外科杂志,1999,19:579. 3. Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T, et al. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin,2004, 54:8-29. 4. Sasaki A, Iwashita Y, Shibata K, et al. Risk factors for early extrahepatic metastasis in patients with liver metastasis from colorectal carcinoma. Hepatogastroenterology,2005,52:1840-1844. 5. 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Colorectal cancer; Liver metastasis; Prognostic factor;CXCR4; SDF-1; E-cadherin; β-catenin; PI3K/AKT; Colon cancer [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R735.34 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => prognosticfactor,sdf1,pi3kakt,coloncancer,ecadherin,βcatenin,cxcr4,livermetastasis,colorectalcancer [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => β连环素,结肠癌,prognosticfactor,βcatenin,e黏附素,肝转移,pi3kakt,预测因子,基质衍生因子1,磷酸肌醇3激酶,coloncancer,ecadherin,cxcr4,livermetastasis,sdf1,colorectalcancer,结直肠癌 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => d3a6421980700338b449c15ec8310edd75466119 [hints] => 4 [id] => 8qtr32YBFjIhTVEbVJcv [tags] => 0 ) [9] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 由于在光学、电学、磁学、分子识别和催化等领域里具有巨大的应用潜力,设计合成新型功能超分子化合物是当今配位化学、超分子化学、晶体工程学等领域的研究热点之一。本论文选择含碘刚性羧酸配体及自行设计合成了一系列柔性二羧酸配体,通过与d10过渡金属离子和稀土离子自组装,合成了三个系列共17个不同维度的超分子化合物,并通过X-射线单晶衍射、元素分析、X-射线粉末衍射、热重分析、荧光分析等技术对它们进行了表征。全文共分为五章,各章内容如下: 第一章前言,简单介绍了配位化学、晶体工程学、超分子化学、配位聚合物等基本概念和原理,主要合成方法等。有选择性的重点描述了配位聚合物发展的新方向及新思路。 第二章中,首先设计合成了六个具有合适角度的柔性二羧酸配体(H2L1~H2L4, H2L9, H2L10),通过它们与过渡金属离子、稀土金属离子的自组装,得到九个金属—有机超分子配合物Cd2(L1)2(DMF)4(H2O)2-H2O(1), Tm2(L1)2(DMF)4(NO3)2(2), Cu4(L3)4(H2O)4·3DMF (3), Cu4(L4)4(DMF)2-(EtOH)2-8DMF-6H2O(4), Mn4(L4)4(DMF)4(H2O)4·6DMF·H2O(5), Mn3(L4)3-(DMF)4-2DMF-3H2O(6), [Zn(L9)(phen)]-4H2O(7), (H2O)2]-2H2O-2EtOH(8)和Mn3(1L2)2(2L2)(DMF)2(H2O)2·5DMF (9)。通过X-射线单晶衍射结构分析得到单晶结构分别为零维金属—有机大环,零维金属—有机配位笼和一维/二维配位聚合物。在零维环状或笼状结构中,柔性配体采取顺式构象,而在一维或者二维结构中,柔性配体采取反式构象或者同时采取顺式与反式两种构象。 第三章的目标是通过设计改变柔性羧酸配体中羧酸官能团的位置,研究柔性配体中配位基团的取代位置对超分子化合物结构的影响。继续合成了H2L6-H2L8配体,通过它们与金属Cu2+离子自组装,得到了四个基于轮状铜次级构筑单元的金属—有机超分子化合物10-13:配合物Cu2(L6)2(DMF)2·2DMF·H2O(10)和Cu2(L7)2(DMF)2·2DMF(11)是零维分子椅;配合物Cu2(L7)2(bpy)·2DMF·H2O(12)是分子椅构筑的一维链状结构(通过加入4,4'-bipy配体,把零维分子椅连接形成一维结构);配合物Cu2(L8)2(DMF)2·DMF·H2O(13)是含有68元金属有机大环的二维波浪状层状物。在分子椅结构中,配体采取顺式构象,在二维结构中,配体采取反式构象。 第四章中,使用刚性含碘羧酸配体H2atiip与锌离子或者镉离子自组装得到了四个一维超分子配合物(14~17):[Zn(atiip)(bpy)·3H2O] (14,15), [Cd(atiip)(Im)2] (16, Im=imidazole,咪唑)和[Cd(atiip)(DMF)](17)。配合物14和15是一维金属—有机纳米管,且两者互为超分子异构体;配合物16是一维之字链;配合物17是一维手性螺旋链,通过加入手性诱导剂,实现了手性突破。 第五章中,我们做出了总结与展望。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011170507.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-16 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-29 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 无机化学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => The design and synthesis of new functional metal-organic supramolecular complexes in coordination chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, crystal engineering is one of the active research fields in recent years, due to their special properties in new topology, photoelectricity, magnetism, molecular recognition and catalysis etc. In this thesis, we try to synthesize novel coordination complexes by use of flexible and rigid dicarboxylate ligands to assemble with transitional metal ions or rare-earth metal ions. The assembly of dicarboxylate with metal ions yielded 17 novel metal-organic complexes. All complexes have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction、elemental analyses、XRPD analysis、thermal analysis and fluorescence spectroscopy. There are following five chapters: In chapter i:A brief introduction of the coordination chemistry, crystal engineering, supramolecular chemistry, coordination polymers and other basic concepts and principles. Selective focus on the development of coordination polymers described in a new direction and new ideas. The chapter ii:First designed and synthesized the flexible dicarboxylate ligand (H2L1~H2L4, H2L9, H2L10) with the right angle, by their self-assembly with transition metal ions, we have got nine metal organic complexes: Cd2(L1)2(DMF)4(H2O)2-H2O(2), Tm2(L1)2(DMF)4(NO3)2(2), Cu4(L3)4(H2O)4-3DMF(3), Cu4(L4)4(DMF)2(EtOH)2·8DMF·6H2O(4), Mn4(L4)4(DMF)4(H2O)4·6DMF·H2O(5), Mn3(L4)3(DMF)4·2DMF·3H2O(6), [Zn(L9)(phen)]·4H2O(7), [Zn4(L10)3(μ3-OH)2(H2O)2]·2H2O·2EtOH(8)和Mn3(1L2)2(2L2)(DMF)2(H2O)2·5DMF(9). X-ray diffraction structure analysis showed they were zero-dimensional crystal structure of metal organic macrocycle, zero-dimensional metal-organic coordination cage and one- / two-dimensional coordination polymer. In the zero-dimensional ring or cage-like structure, flexible ligand adopted cis-configuration, but in the one-dimensional or two-dimensional structure, the flexible ligand adopted the trans configuration or both cis- and trans configurations. In chapter iii:By changing the positions of the functional groups, there continually synthesized H2L6~H2L8 ligand, the positions of the functional SBUstituents in the central benzene ring change gradually from 1,2-,1,3- to 1,4-position. By applying these flexible ligands to assemble with copper ions, four metal-organic supramolecules (10-13) based on paddlewheel SBU have been isolated. Complexes 10 and 11 are discrete molecular chairs. Complex 12 is a 1D molecular-chair-based coordination polymer. The molecular chairs, similar to that found in 10 and 11, are infinitely connected by the bridging 4,4' -bipy ligands to result in the formation of the 1D chain structure. Complex 13 is a two-dimensional wavelike layer structure containing 68-membered ring. Both L6 and L7 in 10 and 11 adopt cis, cis conformation, while L8 adopts cis, trans conformation, which results in the formation of the 2D layer structure of complex 13. In chapter iv, The assembly of iodine-based rigid dicarboxylate ligands H2atiip with zinc or cadmium ion, there are isolated four one-dimensional coordination complexes (14-17):[Zn(atiip)(bpy)·3H2O] (14,15), [Cd(atiip)(Im)2] (16), [Cd(atiip)(DMF)] (17) (Im=imidazole). Complexes 14 and 15 are one-dimensional metal-organic nanotubes, which are supramolecular isomers, complex 16 is a non-chiral zigzag chain, complexes 17 are one-dimensional chiral helical chains(by adding chiral inducer). In chapter v, The conclusions and prospects. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200820277 [page] => 158 [title_cn] => 基于多羧酸配体的新型金属—有机超分子的合成、结构及性能研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]S. L. James, Metal-organic frameworks[J], Chem. Soc. Rev.2003,32, 276-288. [2]J. A. Darr, M. Poliakoff, New directions in inorganic and metal-organic coordination chemistry in supercritical fluids[J], Chem. Rev.1999,99,495-541. [3]G. F. 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Ueyama, Syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of novel copper(II) complexes with the flexible bide [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 配位化学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [孙道峰]山东大学化学与化工学院 [issue] => [email] => dfndfn@163.com [datebase] => [degree] => 博士 [name_tutor1] => 孙道峰 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 70301 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => sun dao feng [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => dai fang na [job_no] => [volume_label] => 48611 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 金属—有机超分子配合物;;环状及笼状超分子化合物;;金属—有机纳米管;;荧光;;磁性 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13465407730 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 戴昉纳 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学化学与化工学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 博士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 化学与化工学院 [title_en] => Synthesis, Structures and Properties of Metal-Organic Supramolecules Based on Multi-carboxylic Ligands [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Metal-organic supramolecular architectures, Ring and cage-like supramolecular, Metal-organic nanotubes, Fluorescent, Magnetic [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => O621.1 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => fluorescent,metalorganicsupramoleculararchitectures,magnetic,ringandcagelikesupramolecular,metalorganicnanotubes [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 磁性,环状及笼状超分子化合物,magnetic,金属有机纳米管,metalorganicnanotubes,金属有机超分子配合物,fluorescent,metalorganicsupramoleculararchitectures,ringandcagelikesupramolecular,荧光 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => e58b8e4881f91a3e4781fd869181d13e-1129041557 [hints] => 3 [id] => f6tr32YBFjIhTVEbO5Yc [tags] => 0 ) [10] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 西汉以来,中央设置领护校尉管理北方边地少数民族事务。西晋时领护校尉制度推广到南方少数民族地区,首次在荆州增设南蛮校尉掌管荆楚蛮族事务。东晋以来,荆州成为足与中央抗衡的上游军事重镇,南蛮校尉例与荆州刺史兼任,使南蛮校尉成为隶属荆州的重要军事力量,被赋予了各种伐蛮治蛮以外的新职能。而参与纵贯东晋南朝的荆扬之争,也是这一时期南蛮校尉的主要活动,对其间政局的发展产生了一定作用。本文以文献记载为基础,利用历史学、统计学等学科方法,从职官渊源、建置沿革、职能、人事制度等方面对两晋南朝南蛮校尉进行系统研究。 第一章考察汉代领护校尉官的由来及其在魏晋之际由中央职官演变为地方职官并逐渐发展为州刺史的固定兼职的历程。 第二章考察两晋南朝南蛮校尉的建置沿革。泰始九年(273)晋武帝始设南蛮校尉,孝建元年(454)刘宋废罢南蛮校尉,后经齐、梁数次旋置旋罢,南蛮校尉最终消亡。通过对历次置废原因的分析可知,两晋南朝南蛮校尉的置废不再像两汉领护校尉官一样仅与少数民族势力的消长有关,更受到地方政治形势和中央政策的深刻影响。 第三章考察南蛮校尉的职掌及府僚组织。镇抚与征伐蛮族是南蛮校尉的基本职掌。此外,作为荆州重要军事力量的南蛮校尉还有参与平定荆州地方叛乱、对北军事防御和北伐等职掌。刘宋南蛮校尉出现新职能,即兼任军府长史辅助宗王出镇荆州。南蛮校尉开府并设置长史、司马、参军、功曹、主簿等府僚。本章还将考察南蛮府僚佐的选任、出身、迁转和政治行为等问题。第四章考察南蛮校尉的人事制度,包括南蛮校尉担任者的出身阶层、职官迁转及兼任情况。两晋南朝出任南蛮校尉者多为士族,且士族出身者呈递减趋势,反映了两晋南朝门阀政治由盛而衰的大势。州剌史和郡太守是两晋南朝南蛮校尉的主要迁入官和迁出官。在兼任官方面,两晋南蛮校尉例与荆州刺史兼任。但也偶有分别任职的情况,此时南蛮校尉的兼职多为南郡太守。刘宋南蛮校尉与荆州刺史分任的情况增多,其兼职主要是荆州军府长史。 第五章考察南蛮校尉与两晋南朝政治的关系。西晋时南蛮校尉在晋吴对峙、伐吴之战和平吴后对南方少数民族的治理上发挥了重要作用。两晋之际南蛮校尉在荆州刺史的指挥下平定荆州流民叛乱,与东晋建国道路和立国形势关系甚大。东晋历次荆扬之争和荆州刺史主导的北伐行动,南蛮校尉皆参与其中,影响东晋政局的发展。刘宋南蛮校尉辅佐宗王出镇荆州,以“行事”身份执掌军府大权,直接控制荆州地方政治。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223983.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-25 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 中国古代史 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Since the Western Han Dynasty, the central regime had established a new military position, Linghu Xiaowei to deal with the affairs about the northern ethnic groups. The system of Linghu Xiaowei extended to the area of the southern ethnic groups, and Nanman Xiaowei was first established in Jingzhou to handle the ethnic groups affairs in Jingchu area in the Western Jin Dynasty. Since the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Jingzhou had become an important upstream military town, which could rival the central regime in military strength. According to the routine, Nanman Xiaowei and Jingzhou Cishi were hold in one post, which made it the vital military strength subjected to Jingzhou, and endowed with other new functions besides suppressing and governing the ethnics. Participating in the combat between Jingzhou and Yangzhou in the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties also became the prior activity of Nanman Xiaowei in this period, which exerted certain influence on the political situation. Based on the historical documents, and with the methods of history, statistics and so on, this dissertation analyzed systematically Nanman Xiaowei from the perspectives of system origin, organizational structure, functions and personnel system. The chapter one is to review the origin of Linghu Xiaowei in the Han Dynasty and its transformation from the central official to the regional official during the Dynasties of Wei and Jin. The second chapter is to analyze the establishment and abolition of Nanman Xiaowei. Emperor Wu of Jin established this post for the first time in the ninth year of Taishi (273). The Liusong Dynasty abolished it in the first year of Xiaojian(454). After several turns of establishment and abolition in the Southern Qi and Liang Dynasties, Nanman Xiaowei had been abolished ultimately. According to the analysis of the reasons, it became clear that, instead of being influenced by the ethnics, the regional political situation and the central policy had a more important impact on its establishment and abolition. The functions and the organizational structure of Nanman Xiaowei has been discussed in the third chapter. Sending punitive expedition against the ethnic groups and administrating them were the prime functions of Nanman Xiaowei. Moreover, as a vital military strength subjected to Jingzhou, Nanman Xiaowei had also been charge with crashing the rebellion in Jingzhou, defensing the north and launching the expedition against the north. In the Liusong Dynasty, Nanman Xiaowei was endued with a new function:taking the position of Zhangshi in Jinzhou Junfu to assist Princes to administrate Jingzhou. Nanman Xiaowei established Junfu and had assembled his own staffs, such as Zhangshi, Sima, Canjun, Gongcao, Zhubu and so on. This chapter will also elaborate on his staffs'family background and official experiences. The chapter four is to review Nanman Xiaowei's birthplace, family background and the shift of the occupation. Most of Nanman Xiaowei came from Scholar-aristocracy class and the number of it decreased constantly in the Western and Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties, which reflected the evolution of aristocratic politics. Qianruguan and Qianchuguan were Cishi and Taishou mostly. According to the routine, the power of Nanman Xiaowei was hold in the hand of Jingzhou Cishi in the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties. However, there were also exceptions. The post could mainly taken by Nanjun Taishou, and in the Liusong Dynasty by Zhangshi in Jingzhou Junfu. The chapter five is to discuss the relationship between Nanman Xiaowei and the politics in the Western and Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties. Nanman Xiaowei brought to essential effects on the confrontations between Western Jin and Eastern Wu, launching an expedition against Eastern Wu and administrating the southern ethnic groups in the Western Jin Dynasty. Between the Western and Eastern Jin Dynasties, under the command of Jingzhou Cishi, Nanman Xiaowei participated in the battle of crashing the rebellion in Jingzhou, which helped to establish the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In Eastern Jin Dynasty, as an important assistant of Jingzhou Cishi, Nanman Xiaowei took part in the combat between Jingzhou and Yangzhou and the expedition against the north, which influenced the political situation of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In the Liusong Dynasty, Nanman Xiaowei helped Princes to administrate Jingzhou, which made him wield the power of Jingzhou Junfu as a "Xingshi" and control the regional politics of Jingzhou. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200810980 [page] => 106 [title_cn] => 两晋南朝南蛮校尉研究 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => ①中古武官制度的形成与发展演变,参见张金龙师:《魏晋南北朝禁卫武官制度研究》,北京:中华书局,2005年,第1-27页。 ②两汉三国的校尉研究,参见[日]大庭惰著,林剑鸣等译《秦汉法制史研究》,上海人民出版社,1991年,第381-400页。 ③[唐]杜佑撰,王文锦等点校《通典》卷三四《职官一六·武散官》“诸校尉”条,北京:中华书局,1988年,第942-943页。 ④陈高华、钱海皓总主编,刘昭祥主编《中国军事制度史·军事组织体制编制卷》,郑州:大象出版社,1997年,第155页。 ⑤余太山指出西域都护全称为“都护西域使者校尉”(氏著《两汉西域都护考》,《两汉魏晋南北朝与西域关系史研究》,北京:中国社会科学出版社,1995年,第233--257页)。但有学者反对此观点,参见李炳 泉:《关于汉代西域都护府的两个问题》,《民族研究》2003年第6期,第69-75页;《两汉“西域副校尉”略考》,《史学月刊》2008年第12期,第125--127页;洪涛:《汉代西域都护府研究述评》,《新疆师范大学学报》2007年第2期,第5--10页。 ①张金龙师:《魏晋南北朝禁卫武官制度研究》,第60页。 ②汉末三国领护校尉职官性质的演变,参见[日]三崎良章:《五胡十六国与护羌校尉》,《文史哲》1993年第3期,第24--25页:荣宁:《试论护羌校尉制度性质的变化》,《青海民族研究》1998年第2期,第88-91页;程尼娜:《护乌桓校尉府探析》,《黑龙江民族丛刊》2004年第5期,第53--57页;李俊方、魏舶:《汉晋护乌桓校尉职官性质演变探析》,《北方文物》2009年第4期,第76--80页。 ③[唐]房玄龄等:《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第747页。 ①[日]大庭惰著,林剑鸣等译《秦汉法制史研究》,第381--400页。 ②参见劳榦:《汉代的西域都护与戊己校尉》,《中央研究院历史语言研究所集刊》第28本上册(1956),第485--496页;张维华:《西域都护通考》,《汉史论集》,济南:齐鲁书社,1980年,第245--308页;余太山:《两汉西域都护考》,《两汉魏晋南北朝与西域关系史研究》,第233--257页;李炳泉:《关于汉代西域都护府的两个问题》,《民族研究》2003年第6期,第69-75页;《两汉“西域副校尉”略考》,《史学月刊》2008年第12期,第125--127页。 ③参见林斡:《两汉时期“护乌桓校尉”略考》,《内蒙古社会科学》1987年第1期,第49-54页;何天明:《两汉皇朝解决北方民族事务的统治机构——“护乌桓校尉”》,《内蒙古师大学报》1987年第1期,第90-94页:程尼娜:《护乌桓校尉府探析》,《黑龙江民族丛刊》2004年第5期,第53--57页;李俊方、魏舶:《汉晋护乌桓校尉职官性质演变探析》,《北方文物》2009年第4期,第76-80页:边章:《两汉的护羌校尉》,《西北师大学报》1991年第1期,第21--23页;[日]三崎良章:《五胡十六国与护羌校尉》,《文史哲》1993年第3期,第24--25页;荣宁:《试论护羌校尉制度性质的变化》,《青海民族研究》1998年第2期,第88--91页。 ①严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,中央研究院历史语言研究所专刊之四十五B,1963年初版,第129-130、151—155页。 ②周一良:《魏晋南北朝史札记·(梁书)札记》“大府、小府”条,北京:中华书局,1985年,第270-271页。 ③周一良:《南朝境内之各种人及政府对待之政策》,《魏晋南北朝史论集》,北京大学出版社,1997年,第33—101页。 ④[日]宫崎市定著,韩昇等译《九品官入法研究——科举前史》,北京:中华书局,2008年,第134页。 ⑤参见章义和:《地域集团与南朝政治》,上海:华东师范大学出版社,2002年,第89-97页;陈金凤:《魏晋南北朝中间地带研究》,天津古籍出版社,2005年,第174页;杨恩玉:《宋孝武帝改制与“元嘉之治”局面的衰败》,《东岳论丛》2007年第6期,第92-96页。 ⑥参见王延武:《两晋南朝的治“蛮”机构与“蛮族”活动》,《中南民族学院学报》1983年第3期,第31一33页;张泽洪:《两晋南朝的蛮府和左郡县》,《四川师范学院学报》1990年第1期,第30--31页;张华:《南朝蛮族间题研究》,上海:华东师范大学人文学院历史学系硕士论文,2005年,第14--15页。 ⑦周一良:《魏晋南北朝史札记·(南史〉札记》“南蛮校尉”条,第461页。 ⑧或认为板楯蛮即廪君蛮,参见章冠英:《两晋南北朝民族大变动时期的廪君蛮》,《历史研究》1957年第 2期,第68--70页。也有反对将板楯蛮与廪君蛮混为一谈,参见童恩正:《古代的巴蜀》,成都:四川人民出版社,1979年,第45-46页;万绳楠:《魏晋南北朝史论稿》,合肥:安徽教育出版社,1983年,第125-126页;任乃强:《华阳国志校补图注》卷一《巴志》,上海古籍出版社,1987年,第15页,注4。 ①参见陈寅恪:《魏书司马睿传江东民族条释证及推论》,《金明馆丛稿初编》,北京:三联书店,2001年,第69-106页;周一良:《南朝境内之各种人及政府对待之政策》.《魏晋南北朝史论集》,第33--101页;金宝祥:《汉末至南北朝南方蛮夷的迁徙》,《禹贡半月刊》第5卷第12期(1936),第17-20页;周伟洲:《南朝蛮族的分布及其对长江中下游地区的开发》,江苏省六朝史研究会编《古代长江下游的经济开发》,西安:三秦出版社,1989年,第36-53页;朱大渭:《南朝少数民族概况及其与汉族的融合》,《六朝史论》,北京:中华书局,1998年,第419-423页。国外学者的研究成果主要有,[日]谷口房男:《華南民族史研究》,東京:緑蔭書房,1996年,第11--154页;[日]川本芳昭:《魏晋南北朝时代の民族問题》,束京:汲古害院,1998年,第413--534页;[韩]金裕哲:《魏晋南北朝时期“蛮”的北迁及其种族正体性问题》,中国魏晋南北朝史学会编《魏晋南北朝史论文集》,成都:巴蜀书社,2006年,第228--236页。 ②鲁西奇:《释“蛮”》,《文史》2008年第3辑,第55--75页。 ③罗新:《王化与山险—中古早期南方诸蛮历史命运之概观》,《中国史研究》2009年第2期,第4--20页。 ④参见[南宋]洪迈撰,孔凡礼点校《容斋随笔》卷八“东晋将相”条,北京:中华书局,2005年,第104-105页:[清]顾炎武撰,黄汝成集释《日知录集释》卷三一“陕西”条,上海:世界书局,1936年,第717页;[清]顾祖禹撰,贺次君等点校《读史方舆纪要》卷七五《湖广一》,北京:中华书局,2005年,第3489-3518页;[清]钱大昕:《潜研堂文集》卷一二《答问九》,钱大昕撰、陈文和主编《嘉定钱大昕文集》,南京:江苏古籍出版社,1997年,第189页。 ⑤傅乐成:《荆州与六朝政局》,收入王健文主编《政治与权力》,北京:中国大百科全书出版社,2005年,第191--207页。 ⑥田余庆;《东晋门阀政治》,北京大学出版社,2005年。六朝时期江州地位的演变.参见张承宗:《六朝时期江州的战略地位》,《苏州大学学报》1993年第l期,第88-95页;郭黎安:《六朝建都与军事重镇的 分布》,《中国史研究》1999年第4期,第79-80页。 ①[日]川胜义雄著,徐谷梵、李济沧译《六朝贵族制社会研究》,上海古籍出版社,2007年,第154-186页。 ②周一良《魏晋南北朝史扎记·(南史)扎记》“东晋南朝地理形势与政治”条,第75-82页。 ③刘淑芬:《建康与六朝历史的发展》,《六朝的城市与社会》,台北:台湾学生书局,1992年,第3-27页。 ④赵立新:《西晋末年至东晋时期的“分陕”政治——分权化现象下的朝廷与州镇》,台北:台湾大学历史学研究所硕士论文,2000年。 ⑤参加陈金凤”《从“荆扬之争”到“雍荆之争”——东晋南朝政治军事形势演变略论》,《史学月刊》2005年第3期,第34-39页;章义和:《地域售团与南朝政治》,89-97页. ⑥朱子彦:《论东晋王朝桓氏家族与西军关系》——兼对禁军与北府兵的侧面考察》,《学术月刊》2003年第8期,第74-80页 ⑦参加陈寅恪:《述东晋王导之工业》,《金明馆丛稿初编》,第55-77页;王伊同:《五朝门第》,北京:中华书局,2006年;毛汉光《两晋南北朝士族政治研究》,台北:中国学术著作奖助委员会,1966年;何启明:《中古门第论集》,台北:台湾学生书局,1982年再版。 ⑧田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》。 ⑨毛汉光:《中古大士族之个案研究——琅琊王氏》,收入黄宽重.刘增贵主编《家族与社会》,北京:中国大百科全书出版社,2005年,第171-203页。 ⑩参加卜宪群:《琅琊王氏政治地位研究》,《安徽师范大学学报》1988年第1期,第59-67页;《琅琊王氏与六朝文化》,《安徽史学》1989年第3期,第7-11页;王永平、姚晓菲:《略论东晋时期琅琊王氏与佛教文化》,《学习与探索》2007年第1期,第208-213页;徐媛:《中古时期琅琊王氏家族兴衰研究》,济南:山东大学历史文化学院硕士论文,2008年:王永平;《略论晋宋之际琅琊王氏家族代表人物的政治倾向》,《南京理工大学学报》2009年第1期,第101-111页。 11孟繁冶:《汉魏晋南北朝颍川鄢陵庾氏家族源流考》,《许昌师专学报》1992年第3期,第97--102页; 《论颍川鄢陵庾氏之崛起(上)》,《许昌师专学报》1993年第1期,第106-112页;《论颍川鄢陵庾氏之崛起(下)》,《许昌师专学报》1993年第3期,第85-89页;《论颍川庾氏文事及其功能》,《历史教学问题》1993年第4期,第1-7页。 ①李济沧:《论庾亮》,《中华文史论丛》2006年第3期,第179-212页。 ②《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1782页。 ③参见陈寅恪:《魏书司马睿传江东民族条释证及推论》,《金明馆丛稿初编》,第89-95页;周一良:《南朝境内之各种人及政府对待之政策》,《魏晋南北朝史论集》,第51-53页;但余嘉锡认为傒狗是“轻诋之辞”,无关种族,参见[南朝宋]刘义庆著,[南朝梁]刘孝标注,余嘉锡笺疏,周祖谟等整理《世说新语笺疏》卷下之上《容止第十四》“石头事故”条笺疏[三],北京:中华书局,2007年,第726页。 ④[日]川胜义雄著,徐谷梵、李济沧译《六朝贵族制社会研究》,第154-186页。 ⑤魏斌:《东晋寻阳陶氏家族的变迁》,《中国史研究》2002年第4期,第21-32页;杨合林:《陶侃及陶氏家族兴衰与门阀政治之关系》,《史学月刊》2004年第7期,第22-26页。 ⑥参见严耀中:《评宋孝武帝及其政策》,《上海师范大学学报》1987年第1期,第99-104页;何德章:《宋孝武帝上台与南朝寒人之得势》,《西南师范大学学报》1990年第3期,第73-78页;陈长琦:《南朝时代的幼王出镇》,《华南师范大学学报》1996年第1期,第101-109页;鲁力:《出镇宗王之府州僚佐与宋元嘉中主相之争》,《魏晋南北朝隋唐史资料》第17辑,武汉大学出版社,2000年,第60-67页;《刘宋初年的方镇格局与荆扬之争》,《魏晋南北朝隋唐史资料》第18辑,武汉大学出版社,2001年,第63-69页;《南朝“行事”考》,《武汉大学学报》2008年第6期,第759-765页。 ①[东汉]班固撰,[唐]颜师古注《汉书》卷五五《卫青传》颜师古注,北京:中华书局,1962年,第2476页。 ②《汉书》卷六七《胡建传》颜师古注,第2911页。 ③[南朝宋]范晔撰,[唐]李贤等注《后汉书》卷一一四《百官志一》,北京:中华书局,1956年,第3564页。 ④大通上孙家寨汉简整理小组:《大通上孙家寨汉简释文》,《文物》1981年第2期,第22--26页。 ⑤陈高华、钱海皓总主编,刘昭祥主编《中国军事制度史·军事组织体制编制卷》,郑州:大象出版社,1997年,第154--155页。 ⑥汉代“校”及“校尉”的释义,参见[日]大庭惰著,林剑鸣等译《秦汉法制史研究》,上海人民出版社,1991年,第381--383页。 ⑦陈高华、钱海皓总主编,刘昭祥主编《中国军事制度史·军事组织体制编制卷》,第155页。 ⑧[西汉]司马迁撰,[南朝宋]裴骃集解,[唐]司马贞索隐,[唐]张守节正义《史记》卷七《项羽本纪》,北京:中华书局,1959年,第297页。 ⑨《史记》卷一O六《吴王濞传》,第2833页。 ⑩《史记》卷一一一《卫青传》,第2941页。 11《汉书》卷五四《李广传附子敢传》,第2449页;卷五五《霍去病传》,第2481页;卷一七《景武昭宣元成功臣表五》,第648页。 ①《汉书》卷一七《景武昭宣元成功臣表五》,第653页。 ②《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮西南夷传》,第2860页。 ③余太山指出西域都护全称为“都护西域使者校尉”,参见氏著《两汉西域都护考》,《两汉魏晋南北朝与西域关系史研究》,北京:中国社会科学出版社,1995年,第233--257页。但有学者反对此观点,参见李炳泉:《关于汉代西域都护府的两个问题》,《民族研究》2003年第6期,第69-75页;《两汉“西域副校尉”略考》,《史学月刊》2008年第12期,第125-127页:洪涛:《汉代西域都护府研究述评》,《新疆师范大学学报》2007年第2期,第9-10页。 ④《后汉书》卷九○《乌桓传》,第2981页。 ⑤《汉书》卷九四《匈奴传下》,第3820页。 ⑥《后汉书》卷四《和帝纪》注引阚骃《十三州志》,第179页。 ⑦《后汉书》卷九O《乌桓传》,第2982页。 ⑧《后汉书》卷一一八《百官志五》,第3626页。 ⑨《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2877页。边章认为护羌校尉的始置时间在神爵二年(前60),参见氏著《两汉的护羌校尉》,《西北师大学报》1991年第1期,第21-22页。 ⑩《后汉书》卷一下《光武帝纪下》注引《汉宫仪》,第55页。 11西域都护的建号时间主要有地节二年(前68)说、神爵二年(前60)说和神爵三年(前59)说,参见洪涛:《汉代西域都护府研究述评》,《新疆师范大学学报》2007年第2期,第5--7页。 12[北宋]李防等:《太平御览》卷二五一《职官部四九》“都护”条引应劭《汉官仪》,北京:中华书局,1985年,第1185页。 13《汉书》卷一九上《百官公卿表上》,第738页。 14《后汉书》卷八八《西域传》,第2911页。 15参见余太山:《两汉西域都护考》,《两汉魏晋南北朝与西域关系史研究》,第250-252页。 16《后汉书》卷一一八《百官志五》,第3626页。 ①西汉护羌校尉治金城令居塞,东汉时因西羌数叛,曾徙狄道、安夷、临羌、张掖,后还治令居塞;护乌桓校尉东汉治上谷宁城;两汉西域都护治乌垒城。参见马长寿:《氐与羌》,上海人民出版社,1984年,第113--114页;边章:《两汉的护羌校尉》,《西北师大学报》1991年第1期,第22页;余太山:《两汉西域都护考》,《两汉魏晋南北朝与西域关系史研究》,第240-241页。 ②《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2882页。 ③《后汉书》卷一九《耿弇传附晔传》,第724页。 ④《后汉书》卷一一八《百官志五》,第3626页。 ⑤《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2876页:卷九○《乌桓传》,第2981页。 ①《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2876页。 ②《后汉书》卷九○《乌桓传》,第2981页。 ③《汉书》卷六九《赵充国传》,第2977页。 ④《后汉书》卷二四《马援传》,第835页。 ⑤《后汉书》卷一下《光武帝纪下》,第58页。 ⑥《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2880、2884页。 ⑦林斡:《略论两汉时期乌桓人的最初驻牧地及其后的迁徙和分布》,林斡、再思合著《东胡乌桓鲜卑研究与附论》,呼和浩特:内蒙古大学出版社,1995年,第53页。 ⑧[东晋]袁宏撰,周天游校注《后汉纪校注》卷一一《章帝纪》:建初二年(77)“夏四月,徙羌降者于河东”(天津古籍出版社,1987年,第307页)。 ⑨[唐]房玄龄等:《晋书》卷五六《江统传》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第1533页。 ⑩马长寿:《乌桓与鲜卑》,上海人民出版社,1962年,第139页。 11《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2899页。 12《后汉纪校注》卷二五《灵帝纪》,第707页。 13东汉羌族的五次大规模叛乱,参见马长寿:《氐与羌》,第120-146页;田继周:《中国历代民族史·秦汉民族史》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,2007年,第216--232页。 ①[北宋]司马光撰,[元]胡三省注,顾颉刚等点校《资治通鉴》卷五六《汉纪四八》桓帝建宁元年(168),北京:中华书局,1956年,第1806页。 ②[东汉]王符著,[清]汪继培注笺,彭铎校正《潜夫论笺校正》卷五《劝将》,北京:中华书局,1985年,第251页。 ③《后汉书》卷九○《鲜卑传》,第2990页。 ④《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》.第2882页。 ⑤《后汉书》卷二三《窦融传附弟子固传》,第810页。 ⑥参见田继周:《中国历代民族史·秦汉民族史》,第209-211页。 ⑦[西晋]陈寿撰,[南朝宋]裴松之注《三国志》卷九《夏侯尚传附子玄传》,北京:中华书局,1959年,第298页。 ⑧《汉书》卷一九上《百官公卿表上》,第741页。 ⑨严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》甲部《秦汉地方行政制度》,中央研究院历史语言研究所专刊之四十五A,1990年第3版,第282页。 ①《后汉书》卷七五《刘焉传》,第2431页。 ②严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》甲部《秦汉地方行政制度》,第296页。 ③《后汉书》卷八七《西羌传》,第2895页。 ④《后汉书》卷六五《段熲传》,第2147页。 ⑤建安十年(205)十月,高斡举并州反,追拜西平太守杜畿为河东太守(《三国志》卷一六《杜畿传》,第494页)。可见杜畿护羌校尉之授在建安十年。 ⑥《三国志》卷一六《苏则传》,第491页。 ⑦《三国志》卷一五《温恢传》:“文帝践阼,以恢为侍中,出为魏郡太守。数年,迁凉州刺史,持节领护羌校尉。”(第479页)黄初元年(220)金城太守苏则加领护羌校尉,温恢之任当在其后。据卷一六《苏则传》,苏则后“征拜侍中”,“黄初四年(223),左迁东平相”(第492、493页)。故温恢任职的时间在黄初四年以前。 ⑧《三国志》卷二七《徐邈传》:“明帝以凉州绝远,南接蜀寇,以邈为凉州刺史,使持节领护羌校尉。”(第739页)《晋书》卷四一《李憙传》:“除凉州刺史,加扬威将军、假节,领护羌校尉”(第1189页)。 ⑨《后汉书》卷八《灵帝纪》,第354页。 ⑩《后汉书》卷七三《刘虞传》,第2354页。 ①《后汉书》卷九○《乌桓传》,第2984页。 ②《三国志》卷二六《田豫传》:田豫黄初(220-226)初年任护乌丸校尉,“为校尉九年”后被幽州刺史王雄所代(第727页)。故王雄兼领护乌丸校尉当在明帝太和(227--233)中。 ③《三国志》卷二六《田豫传》,第727--728页。 ④《三国志》卷三○《乌丸传》,第839页。 ⑤《三国志》卷二八《毋丘俭传》:“青龙(233--237)中,帝图讨辽东,以俭有干策,徙为幽州刺史,加度辽将军,使持节,护乌丸校尉。”(第762页)《三国志》卷一六《杜畿传附子恕传》:“复出为幽州刺史,加建威将军,使持节,护乌丸校尉。”(第505页) ⑥《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ⑦《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ①《资治通鉴》卷八三《晋纪五》惠帝永康元年(300)胡注,第2647页。 ②东晋南朝相继在南方增设了宁蛮校尉、护三巴校尉、平蛮校尉等。参见《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页;[南朝梁]萧子显:《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》,北京:中华书局,1972年,第328、329页。 ③《后汉书》卷一一八《百官志五》,第3626页。 ④《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ①[南朝梁]沈约:《宋书》卷三九《百官志上》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第1225页。 ②参见《晋书》卷三七《高密文献王泰传》,第1094页;卷三八《梁王肜传》,第1127页。 ③参见《晋书》卷三六《卫瓘传》,第1057页;《张华传》,第1070页;卷四二《唐彬传》,第1219页:卷六六《刘弘传》,第1763页;罗新、叶炜:《刘宝墓志疏正》,《新出魏晋南北朝墓志疏证》,北京:中华书局,2005年,第5-7页。 ④《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第73、76、79页。 ⑤《晋书》卷四《惠帝纪》,第94页。 ⑥[东晋]常璩撰,任乃强校注《华阳国志校补图注》卷八《大同志》,上海古籍出版社,1987年,第445页。 ⑦严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,中央研究院历史语言研究所专刊之四十五B,1963年初版,第25页。 ⑧严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,第35页。 ①关于晋武帝“罢州郡兵”的研究,参见唐长孺:《魏晋州郡兵的设置和废罢》,《魏晋南北朝史拾遗》,北京:中华书局,1983年,第141-150页;高敏:《东汉、魏、晋时期“州郡兵”制度的历史演变》、《晋武帝“罢州郡兵”问题辨析》,《魏晋南北朝兵制研究》,郑州:大象出版社,1998年,第17-43页、第155-169页;陈玉屏:《“晋武帝罢州郡兵说”是如何形成的》,《许昌师专学报》1990年第2期,第70-72页;杨光辉:《晋武帝“悉去州郡兵”辨疑》,《社会科学战线》1984年第3期,第160-163页。 ②[南朝宋]刘义庆撰,[南朝梁]刘孝标注,余嘉锡笺疏,周祖谟等整理《世说新语笺疏》卷上之上《识鉴第七》“晋武帝讲武于宣武场”条,北京:中华书局,2007年,第460页。 ③《后汉书》卷一一八《百官志五》刘昭注引晋武帝太康诏书,第3626页。 ④[隋]虞世南:《北堂书钞》卷七二《设官部二四》“刺史”注引王隐《晋书》,天津古籍出版社,1988年,第294页。 ⑤唐长孺:《魏晋州郡兵的设置和废罢》,《魏晋南北朝史拾遗》,第149页。 ⑥[南宋]赵明诚撰,金文明校证《金石录校证》卷二○《晋护羌校尉彭祈碑》,上海书画出版社,1985年,第372页。 ⑦吴廷燮误列彭祈于西晋凉州刺史表(氏著《晋方镇年表》,《二十五史补编》第三册,北京:中华书局,1956年,第3437页),参见唐长孺:《魏晋州郡兵的设置和废罢》,《魏晋南北朝史拾遗》,第146页,注释[一]。 ⑧《华阳国志校补图注》卷八《大同志》,第440页。 ①《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》,第328页。 ②参见《晋书》卷四三《山涛传》,第1227页;《世说新语笺疏》卷上之上《识鉴第七》“晋武帝讲武于宣武场”条注引《竹林七贤论》,第461页。 ③高敏:《晋武帝“罢州郡兵”问题辨析》,《魏晋南北朝兵制研究》,第169页。 ④《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ①[东汉]许慎撰,[清]段玉裁注《说文解字注》卷二五《虫部》,上海古籍出版社,1981年,第673页。 ②陈寅恪:《魏书司马睿传江东民族条释证及推论》,《金明馆丛稿初编》,北京:三联书店,2001年,第85页。 ③[韩]金裕哲:《魏晋南北朝时期“蛮”的北迁及其种族正体性问题》,中国魏晋南北朝史学会编《魏晋南北朝史论文集》,成都:巴蜀书社,2006年,第228页。 ④关于南北朝史料中“蛮”的广狭二义,参见[日]谷口房男著,顾江龙译《南北朝时期的蛮酋》,[日]谷川道雄主编《魏晋南北朝隋唐史学的基本问题》,北京:中华书局,2010年,第89页,注5。 ⑤鲁西奇:《释“蛮”》,《文史》2008年第3辑,第73-74、67页。 ⑥[清]王先谦撰,吴格点校《诗三家义集疏》卷一五《采芑》,北京:中华书局,1987年,第620-621页。 ⑦[日]和田清:《周代の蛮貊について》,《东洋学报》第29卷第3、4合并号(1944),第639-654页。 ⑧[日]谷口房男:《后汉时代の武陵蛮》,《華南民族史研究》,東京:绿蔭害房,1996年,第14页。 ①[南朝宋]范晔撰,[唐]李贤等注《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮传》,北京:中华书局,1956年,第2841页。 ②[唐]李吉甫撰,贺次君点校《元和郡县图志》卷三○《江南道六》“辰州”条,北京:中华书局,1983年,第746页。 ③参见张雄:《“巴氏蛮夷”浅论》,《中南民族学院学报》1984年第2期,第81-87页。 ④《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮传》:“廪君死,魂魄世为白虎。巴氏以虎饮人血,遂以人祠焉。”(第2840页) ⑤《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮传》,第2830页。 ⑥《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮传》注引干宝《晋纪》,第2830页。 ⑦[东晋]常璩撰,任乃强校注《华阳国志校补图注》卷一《巴志》,上海古籍出版社,1987年,第14页。 ⑧参见[韩]金裕哲:《魏晋南北朝时期“蛮”的北迁及其种族正体性问题》,中国魏晋南北朝史学会编《魏晋南北朝史论文集》,第230页。 ⑨[北齐]魏收:《魏书》卷九六《賨李雄传》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第2110页;[唐]房玄龄等:《晋书》卷一二○《李特载记》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第3021页。 ⑩童恩正最早指出廪君蛮和板楯蛮的发源地不同,一在清江(夷水),一在嘉陵江(渝水)。姓氏不同,巴族有巴氏、樊氏、曋氏、相氏、郑氏五姓,板楯蛮有罗、朴、督、鄂、度、夕、龚七姓。信仰不同,一祀虎,一杀虎。故二者完全是不同的种族。(氏著《古代的巴蜀》,成都:四川人民出版社,1979年,第45--46页)万绳楠、任乃强、鲁西奇也反对将板楯蛮与廪君蛮混为一谈,参见万绳楠:《魏晋南北朝史论稿》,合肥:安徽教育出版社,1983年,第125-126页:任乃强:《华阳国志校补图注》卷一《巴志》,上海古籍出版社,1987年,第15页,注4;鲁西奇:《释“蛮”》,《文史》2008年第3辑,第57页。 11[南朝梁]沈约:《宋书》卷九七《夷蛮传》,北京:中华书局,第2397、2398页。 12参见章冠英:《两晋南北朝民族大变动时期的廪君蛮》,《历史研究》1957年第2期,第68--70页;万绳楠:《魏晋南北朝史论稿》,合肥:安徽教育出版社,1983年,第125--126页。 ①《魏书》卷一○一《蛮传》,第2245页。 ②[南朝梁]萧子显:《南齐书》卷五八《蛮传》,北京:中华书局,1972年,第1007页。 ③《宋书》卷九七《夷蛮传》,第2398页。 ④《魏书》卷一○一《蛮传》,第2245--2246页。 ⑤参见金宝祥:《汉末至南北朝南方蛮夷的迁徙》,《禹贡半月刊》第5卷第12期(1936),第17--20页;[韩]金裕哲:《魏晋南北朝时期“蛮”的北迁及其种族正体性问题》,中国魏晋南北朝史学会编《魏晋南北朝史论文集》,第228--236页。 ⑥《资治通鉴》卷一○四《晋纪二六》孝武帝太元元年(376)条胡注,第3273页。 ⑦参见罗新:《王化与山险——中古早期南方诸蛮历史命运之概观》,《中国史研究》2009年第2期,第11页。 ⑧汉代的初郡制度,参见胡绍华:《浅析汉朝初郡政策的历史作用》、《汉朝开创了中央王朝治理南方民族的基本政策》,《中国南方民族历史文化探索》,北京:民族出版社,2005年,第237--247、292--308页。 ⑨《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮传》,第2831、2841、2842页。 ⑩鲁西奇:《释“蛮”》,《文史》2008年第3辑,第58-60页。 11《宋书》卷九七《夷蛮传》,第2396页。 12罗新:《王化与山险——中古早期南方诸蛮历史命运之概观》,《中国史研究》2009年第2期,第13页。 13《后汉书》卷八六《南蛮传》,第2833页。 14参见[日]谷口房男:《后汉时代の武陵蛮》,《華南民族史研究》,第19-21页;鲁西奇:《释“蛮”》,《文史》2008年第3辑,第60页。 ①[日]谷口房男:《后汉时代の武陵蛮》表2,《華南民族史研究》,第17页。 ②参见傅乐成:《荆州与六朝政局》,收入王健文主编《政治与权力》,北京:中国大百科全书出版社,2005年,第191--207页;刘淑芬:《建康与六朝历史的发展》,《六朝的城市与社会》,台北:台湾学生书局,1992年,第3--27页。 ③鲁西奇:《释“蛮”》,《文史》2008年第3辑,第67页。 ④参见[日]川本芳昭:《魏晋南北朝时代の民族問题》,東京:汲古書院,1998年,第419页。 ⑤《南齐书》卷一五《州郡志下》“巴州”条,第275页。 ⑥《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》,第329页。 ⑦《资治通鉴》卷一五○《梁纪六》武帝普通六年(525)胡注,第4707页。 ⑧[日]谷口房男:《宋齐の蛮》表3,《華南民族史研究》,第70页。 ⑨白翠琴:《中国历代民族史·魏晋南北朝民族史》,北京:社会科学文献出版社,2007年,第336-337页。 ①《宋书》卷七七《沈庆之传》:“驿道蛮反杀深式,遣(沈)庆之又讨之。王玄谟领荆州,王方回领台军并会,平定诸山”(第1997页)。 ②[清]顾祖禹撰,贺次君等点校《读史方舆纪要》卷七五《湖广一》,北京:中华书局,2005年,第3489页。 ③[东汉]班固撰,[唐]颜师古注《汉书》卷二八上《地理志上》,北京:中华书局,1962年,第1563-1568、1594--1596页;《后汉书》卷一一二《郡国志四》,第3485页。 ④[西晋]陈寿撰,[南朝宋]裴松之注《三国志》卷五四《鲁肃传》,北京:中华书局,1959年,第1269页。 ⑤《三国志》卷三五《诸葛亮传》,第912页。 ⑥傅乐成:《荆州与六朝政局》,收入王健文主编《政治与权力》,北京:中国大百科全书出版社,2005年,第194页。 ①《三国志》卷四七《孙权传》,第1119"-1120页。 ②《三国志》卷三二《刘备传》,第887页。 ③《三国志》卷六一《潘溶传》注引《江表传》,第1398页。 ④《三国志》卷五八《陆逊传》:“备宜都太守樊友委郡走,诸城长吏及蛮夷君长皆降。逊请金银铜印,以假授初附。是岁建安二十四年(219)十一月也。”(第1345页) ⑤《三国志》卷三二《刘备传》,第890页。 ⑥《三国志》卷四七《孙权传》,第1122页。 ⑦《三国志》卷三二《刘备传》,第890页。 ⑧《三国志》卷三九《马良传》,第983页。 ⑨《三国志》卷四七《孙权传》,第1122--1123页。 ⑩《三国志》卷五五《黄盖传》,第1285页。 11《三国志》卷四七《孙权传》,第1136页。 ①《三国志》卷六一《潘溶传》,第1397页。 ②[日]谷口房男:《三国时代の武陵蛮》,《華南民族史研究》,第47页。 ③《三国志》卷六○《钟离牧传》,第1394页。 ④《三国志》卷四《陈留王奂传》,第152页。 ⑤《华阳国志校补图注》卷一《巴志·巴东郡》,第34页。 ⑥三国相中夷的动向,参见牟发松:《湖北通史·魏晋南北朝卷》,武汉:华中师范大学出版社,1999年,第374--376页;方高峰:《试论孙吴民族政策》,《湘潭大学学报》2005年第1期,第130页。 ⑦《三国志》卷五六《朱然传》注引《襄阳记》,第1307页。 ⑧《三国志》卷一七《徐晃传》,第528页。 ⑨参见王素:《汉末吴初长沙郡纪年》附2《关于汉末吴初的长沙蛮、长沙贼和长沙山寇》,北京吴简研讨班编《吴简研究》第一辑,武汉:崇文书局,2004年,第81一83页。 ⑩《三国志》卷四七《孙权传》称“魏将梅敷”(第1121页),夷王梅敷很可能被曹魏任命为将军。 ①牟发松:《湖北通史·魏晋南北朝卷》,第376页。 ②《三国志》卷四七《孙权传》,第1121页。 ③《三国志》卷五八《陆逊传》,第1351页。 ④《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ⑤《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第68页。 ⑥《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ⑦[北宋]李防等:《太平御览》卷二四二《职官部四十》“诸校尉”条注引傅畅《晋诸公赞》,北京:中华书局,1985年,第1146页。 ⑧吴廷燮:《晋方镇年表》,《二十五史补编》第三册,北京:中华书局,1956年,第3446页。 ⑨方高峰注意到南蛮校尉设置与西晋灭吴的关系,以武帝部署灭吴在泰始五年(269),认为南蛮校尉当置于泰始五年至九年(273)间。(氏著《西晋南方民族政策析要》,《湖南城市学院学报》2007年第1期,第66页) ①《晋书》卷二《文帝纪》,第38页。 ②《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1014页。 ③《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第58页。 ④《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》:“会吴人寇弋阳、江夏,略户口,诏遣侍臣移书诘祜不追讨之意,并欲移州复旧之宜。祜曰‘江夏去襄阳八百里,比知贼问,贼去亦已经日矣。步军方往,安能救之哉!劳师以免责,恐非事宜也。昔魏武帝置都督,类皆与州相近,以兵势好合恶离。疆场之间,一彼一此,慎守而已,古之善教也。若辄徙州,贼出无常,亦未知州之所宜据也。’使者不能诘。”(第1020页)又《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》载:王濬命何攀“前至襄阳,与羊、宗论之”。“(攀)因至荆州,与刺史宗廷论。宗未许,乃见羊祜”。(第650页)可知羊祜与荆州刺史同镇襄阳。 ⑤《晋书》卷一《宣帝纪》,第3页。 ⑥《晋书》卷一《宣帝纪》,第14页。 ⑦《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第58页。 ⑧《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第62页。 ⑨《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》,第1356页。 ⑩《三国志》卷五八《陆逊传》,第1346页。 11《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》,第1359页。 12牟发松:《湖北通史·魏晋南北朝卷》,第80、82页。 ①《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》,第1356页。 ②《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第62页。 ③《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1016页。 ④《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》:“晋车骑将军羊祜率师向江陵,诸将咸以抗不宜上,抗曰:‘江陵城固兵足,无所忧患。假令敌没江陵,必不能守,所损者小。如使西陵盘结,则南山群夷皆当扰动,则所忧虑,难可而言也。吾宁弃江陵而赴西陵,况江陵牢固乎?’”(第1356页) ⑤《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》,第1357页。 ⑥《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1016页。 ⑦《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1018页。 ⑧《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》言:“祜所统八万余人”(第1016页),可见羊祜攻打江陵的五万兵力占荆州军事力量的大半。 ⑨《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》,第1356页。 ⑩《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》,第650页。 11《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第71页。 ①《晋书》卷三四《杜预传》,第1030页。 ②《宋书》卷九七《夷蛮传》:“(元嘉)十八年(441),蛮田向求等为寇,破溇中,虏略百姓。”“二十四年(447),南郡临沮当阳蛮反,缚临沮令傅僧骥。”这两次蛮乱限于搂中、临沮两县附近,波及范围不大,因此镇压叛乱也只需依靠荆州军府参军统率的地方军队完成。溇中蛮由“荆州刺史衡阳王义季遣行参军曹孙念讨破之”,当阳蛮被“荆州刺史南谯王义宣遣中兵参军王谌讨破之”。(第2396页) ③《宋书》卷九七《夷蛮传》,第2396页。 ④《宋书》卷七七《沈庆之传》:“驿道蛮反杀深式,遣(沈)庆之又讨之。王玄谟领荆州,王方回领台军并会,平定诸山”(第1997页)。 ⑤王延武:《两晋南朝的治“蛮”机构与“蛮族”活动》,《中南民族大学学报》1983年第3期,第31--33页;张泽洪:《两晋南朝的蛮府和左郡县》,《四川师范学院学报》1990年第1期,第30-31页。 ①黎虎:《六朝时期荆州地区的人口》,中国魏晋南北朝史学会编《魏晋南北朝史论文集》,济南:齐鲁书社,1991年,第49页。 ②[韩]金裕哲:《魏晋南北朝时期“蛮”的北迁及其种族正体性问题》,收入中国魏晋南北朝史学会编《魏晋南北朝史论文集》,成都:巴蜀书社,2006年,第232页。 ③《宋书》卷三七《州郡志三》,第1129、1135、1124页。 ④《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。《宋书》卷四O《百官志下》:“宁蛮校尉,晋安帝置,治襄阳,以授鲁宗之。”(第1255页)按鲁宗之于义熙元年(405)任雍州刺史,其后雍州刺史例带宁蛮校尉,则宁蛮校尉的设置当在义熙元年。 ⑤《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》,第329页。 ⑥田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》,北京大学出版社,2005年,第108页。 ⑦《宋书》卷七九《竟陵王诞传》,第2025页。 ⑧何德章:《宋孝武帝上台与南朝寒人之得势》,《西南师范大学学报》1990年第3期,第77页。 ①《宋书》卷九七《夷蛮传》,第2396页。 ②张化:《南朝蛮族问题研究》,上海:华东师范大学人文学院历史系硕士论文,2005年,第16页。 ③[北魏]郦道元著,陈桥驿校证《水经注校证》,北京:中华书局,2007年,第801-802页。 ④《宋书》卷四四《谢晦传》,第1349页。 ⑤《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第407页。 ⑥严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,中央研究院历史语言研究所专刊之四十五B,1963年初版,第130页。 ⑦田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》,第286页。 ⑧《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第407页。 ⑨《宋书》卷六九《刘湛传》:元嘉六年(429),“抚军将军江夏王义恭镇江陵,以(刘)湛为使持节、南蛮校尉、领抚军长史、行府州事”(第1816页)。卷四六《张邵传》:八年(431),以张邵继任“抚军长史、 持节、南蛮校尉”(第1395页)。卷七八《萧思话传》:十四年(437),萧思话“迁使持节、临川王义庆平西长史、南蛮校尉”。十六年(439),“衡阳王义季代义庆,又除安西长史,余如故”(第2013、2014页)。 ①《宋书》卷六九《刘湛传》,第1816、1817页。 ②参见《晋书》卷三七《谯王承传》,第1105页。 ③参见唐春生:《晋末刘裕与刘毅之争述论》,《重庆师范大学学报》2003年第4期,第23--28页;李磊:《晋宋之际的政局与高门士族的动向》,《华东师范大学学报》2007年第5期,第61-66页。 ④陈金凤:《魏晋南北朝中间地带研究》第五章《荆襄地区与南北政局》,天津古籍出版社,2005年,第122页。 ⑤《宋书》卷五九《张畅传》,第1606页。 ⑥陈金凤:《魏晋南北朝中间地带研究》第五章《荆襄地区与南北政局》,第122页。 ⑦《宋书》卷九四《恩幸传》,第2302页。 ⑧关于宋孝武帝改制及其影响,参见严耀中:《评宋孝武帝及其政策》,《上海师范大学学报》1987年第1期,第99-104页;何德章:《宋孝武帝上台与南朝寒人之得势》,《西南师范大学学报》1990年第3期,第73--78页;左华明:《寒人地域与东扬州的设置》,《江西财经大学学报》2007年第2期,第97-99页;杨恩玉:《宋孝武帝改制与“元嘉之治”局面的衰败》,《东岳论丛》2007年第6期,第92-96页。 ①《资治通鉴》卷一二八《宋纪一○》孝武帝孝建元年(454)条,第4021页。 ②杨恩玉:《宋孝武帝改制与“元嘉之治”局面的衰败》,《东岳论丛》2007年第6期,第94页。 ③《宋书》卷三七《州郡志三》,第1124页。 ④《资治通鉴》卷一二八《宋纪一○》孝武帝孝建元年(454)条,第4021页。 ⑤《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》,第328页。[清]朱铭盘:《南朝齐会要·职官》“护南蛮校尉”条载,护南蛮校尉“宋末省。建元元年(479)九月,复置。三年(481),省。延兴元年(494)八月,复置。建武元年(494)十一月,省”(上海古籍出版社,1984年,第309页)。 ⑥《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第407页。 ⑦建元元年(479)至三年(481)魏、齐边境冲突的研究,参见张金龙师:《北魏政治史》六,兰州:甘肃教育出版社,第194--213页。 ①《南齐书》卷五七《魏虏传》,第986页。 ②《南齐书》卷二八《刘善民传》,第525页。 ③《南齐书》卷二五《垣崇祖传》,第461--462页。 ④《南齐书》卷二《高帝纪下》,第33、34页。 ⑤《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第407页。 ⑥建元二年(480)十二月王奂辞南蛮校尉表称:“今复割撤大府,制置偏校”(《南齐书》卷四九《王奂传》,第848页),表明南蛮校尉府是分荆州军府而立。 ⑦参见[日]谷口房男著,顾江龙译《南北朝时期的蛮酋》,[日]谷川道雄主编《魏晋南北朝隋唐史学的基本问题》,第88--107页。 ⑧《南齐书》卷五八《蛮传》,第1007页。 ⑨《南齐书》卷四九《王奂传》,第848页。[南朝梁]江淹撰,[明]胡之骥注,李长路等点校《江文通集汇注》卷八《王侍中为南蛮校尉诏》:“荆楚殷旷,任重寄远。毗佐之选,非良勿授。侍中领秘书监骁骑将军 奂,秉心贞元,志局开亮。绩誉之美,在公屡彰。必能赞政南纪,播惠西夏。”(北京:中华书局,1984年,第321页) ①《南齐书》卷四九《王奂传》,第848页。 ②《南齐书》卷五○《巴陵王昭秀传》,第862页。 ③《南齐书》卷四《郁林王纪》,第70页。 ④《南齐书》卷五○《桂阳王昭粲传》,第862页。 ⑤《南齐书》卷四五《始安贞王道生传附子遥光传》,第789页。 ⑥《南齐书》卷四五《始安贞王道生传附子遥欣传》,第792页。 ⑦《南齐书》卷六《明帝纪》,第85、86页。 ⑧《南齐书》卷四五《始安贞王道生传附子遥欣传》,第792页。 ①程尼娜:《护乌桓校尉府探析》,《黑龙江民族丛刊》2004年第5期,第53-57页;高荣:《汉代护羌校尉述论》,《中国边疆史地研究》1995年第3期,第10-16页。 ②详见第二章第二节《南蛮校尉始设与西晋灭吴》。 ③[唐]房玄龄等:《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第68页。 ④详见第一章第三节《西晋的领护校尉制度》。 ①《晋书》卷三四《杜预传》,第1031页。 ②《晋书》卷-○○《王如传》,第2618页。 ③《晋书》卷五《怀帝纪》,第122页。 ④《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1770、1772页。 ⑤《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1775页。 ⑥《晋书》卷九八《桓温传》,第2572页。 ⑦“西阳蛮”见[南朝梁]萧子显《南齐书》卷五八《蛮传》(北京:中华书局,1972年,第1009页)。西晋太安二年(303)有义阳蛮张昌领导的流民叛乱(《晋书》卷一00《张昌传》,第2612--2614页)。 ⑧参见王素:《汉末吴初长沙郡纪年》附2《关于汉末吴初的长沙蛮、长沙贼和长沙山寇》,北京吴简研讨班编《吴简研究》第一辑,武汉:崇文书局,2004年,第81-83页。 ①《晋书》卷九《孝武帝纪》,第226页。 ②《晋书》卷三八《新野王歆传》,第1126页。 ③《晋书》卷一○○《张昌传》,第2612、2613页。 ④《晋书》卷三八《新野王歆传》,第1126页。 ⑤《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1769页。 ⑥《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1763、1764页。 ⑦《晋书》卷一00《张昌传》,第2614页。 ⑧《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1769页。 ①《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1764页。 ②[南朝梁]沈约:《宋书》卷六六《何尚之传》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第1737页。 ③《晋书》卷四三《山简传》,第1229页。 ④《晋书》卷四三《王澄传》,第1239、1240页。 ⑤《晋书》卷一○○《王如传》,第2618页。 ⑥《晋书》卷四三《王澄传》,第1240页。 ⑦《晋书》卷六九《周顗传》,第1850页。 ①《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1770、1771、1772页。 ②周顗“以雅望获海内盛名”,颇好酒,“略无醒日”,曾与王导“坐傲然啸咏”(《晋书》卷六九《周顗传》,第1851、1852页),属名士之列。 ③《晋书》卷七三《庾翼传》,第1931页。 ④《晋书》卷九九《桓玄传》,第2591、2593页。 ①《宋书》卷五一《临川烈武王道规传》,第1472、1473、1474页。 ②田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》,北京大学出版社,2005年,第31页。 ③《晋书》卷七《成帝纪》,第176页。 ④《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1776、1781、1773页。 ⑤《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1767页。 ⑥《宋书》卷五一《临川烈武王道规传》,第1473页。 ①《晋书》卷七《成帝纪》,第175页。 ②《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1776页。 ③陈寅恪:《述东晋王导之功业》,《金明馆丛稿初编》,上海古籍出版社,1980年,第63-64页。 ④《晋书》卷七三《庾亮传》,第1923页。 ⑤《晋书》卷七三《庾亮传》称庾亮北伐之初,欲“率大众十万,据石城,为诸军声援”(第1923页),后因邾城失陷而作罢,足见他有离开荆州的意图。 ⑥庾翼的生平仕履,参见[东晋]张望:《江州都督庾翼碑铭一首并序》,[唐]许敬宗编,罗国威整理《日藏弘仁本文馆词林校证》,北京:中华书局,2001年,第178-181页。 ⑦《晋书》卷七三《庾亮传》,第1923页。 ⑧《晋书》卷七三《庾翼传》,第1932页。 ①《晋书》卷七三《庾翼传》,第1933页。田余庆指出庾亮、庾翼兄弟是借北伐为名,排除襄阳区域的桓宣势力,以控制江州以上全部地境。(氏著《东晋门阀政治》,第106页) ②《晋书》卷七三《庾翼传》,第1934页。 ③咸和七年(332)六月荆州刺史陶侃以疾笃上表逊位后,“以后事付右司马王愆期,加督护,统领文武”(《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1777页),可见他深受陶侃信任。 ④《宋书》卷九二《良吏·王歆之传》,第2270页。 ⑤《晋书》卷八一《桓宣传》,第2117页。 ⑥《晋书》卷七《康帝纪》,第187页。 ⑦《晋书》卷八《穆帝纪》,第192、193页。 ⑧《晋书》卷九八《桓温传》,第2571、2572页。 ⑨参见田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》,第145-152页。 ①《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》,第328页。 ②严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,中央研究院历史语言研究所专刊之四十五B,1963年初版,第151-155页;周一良:《魏晋南北朝史札记·(梁书)札记》“大府、小府”条,北京:中华书局,1985年,第270-271页。 ③[清]陆增祥:《八琼室金石补正》卷一○《宋宁州刺史(?)龙颜碑阴》,吴兴刘氏希古楼刊本。另参见严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,第152--153页。 ④《宋书》卷四○《百官志下》,第1255页。 ①参见张军:《汉魏晋参军一职考论》,张金龙主编《黎虎教授古稀纪念中国古代史论丛》,北京:世界知识出版社,2006年,第608--612页。 ②《南齐书》卷一六《百官志》:“凡公督府置佐:长史、司马各一人,谘议参军二人。诸曹有录事,功曹,记室,户曹,仓曹,中、直兵,外兵,骑兵,长流贼曹,城局,法曹,田曹,水曹,铠曹,集曹,右户,十八曹。”(第313页)严耕望按:“实只十六曹,疑‘中直兵’上脱‘中兵’二字,不知何处另脱一曹。”(氏著《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,第197页) ③严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,第197页。 ①桓温南蛮参军郝隆语桓温曰:“千里投公,始得蛮府参军”,当亦为桓温所辟。([南朝宋]刘义庆撰,[南朝梁]刘孝标注,余嘉锡笺疏,周祖谟等整理《世说新语笺疏》卷下之下《排调第二十五》“郝隆为桓公南蛮参军”条,北京:中华书局,2007年,第946页) ②参见《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页:[唐]姚思廉:《梁书》卷二六《范岫传》,北京:中华书局,1973年,第292页。 ③《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页。 ④《梁书》卷二六《范岫传》,第292页。 ⑤详见第二章第四节《南齐南蛮校尉的旋置旋罢》。 ①《宋书》卷四四《谢晦传》,第1348页。 ②周一良:《魏晋南北朝史札记·《梁书)札记》“大府、小府”条,北京:中华书局,1985年,第270-271页。 ③《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页。 ④《晋书》卷四《惠帝纪》,第100页。 ⑤《晋书》卷一00《杜曾传》,第2619页。 ⑥[北宋]司马光撰,[元]胡三省注,顾颉刚等点校《资治通鉴》卷八八《晋纪一O》怀帝永嘉六年(312):“故新野王歆牙门将胡亢聚众于竟陵,自号楚公,寇掠荆土,以歆南蛮司马新野杜曾为竟陵太守。”(北京:中华书局,1956年,第2776页) ①《晋书》卷一○○《杜曾传》,第2619页。 ②《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1768、1769页。 ③《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1763页。 ④严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,第209页。 ⑤《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1763--1764页。 ①《宋书》卷四四《谢晦传》,第1349-1350、1359、1355页。 ②《宋书》卷五三《庾登之传》,第1516页。 ③《宋书》卷六四《何承天传》,第1703页。 ④《宋书》卷四四《谢晦传》,第1361页;卷六四《何承天传》,第1703页。 ⑤《宋书》卷七六《王玄谟传》,第1973页。 ⑥《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第407页。 ⑦《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页。 ⑧《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第407页。 ⑨严耕望:《中国地方行政制度史》乙部《魏晋南北朝地方行政制度》,中央研究院历史语言研究所专刊之四十五B,1963年初版,第130页。 ⑩《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页。 ①《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页。 ②“南蛮司马”当为“南蛮长史”之误。(《南齐书》卷二二《豫章文献王传》,第408页) ③《南齐书》卷二《高帝纪下》,第36页。 ④《南齐书》卷五一《崔慧景传》,第872页。 ①本章采用毛汉光先生判定两晋南北朝士族、寒素的标准,将这一时期除宗室以外的南蛮校尉任职者的出身阶层划分为士族、小姓、寒素:累官三代以上且居官五品以上者为“士族”;稍有门资,父祖之一任官,而又未达士族标准者为“小姓”;门寒身素,无世祚之资者为“寒素”。参见氏著《两晋南北朝士族政治之研究》,台北:中国学术著作奖助委员会,1966年,第3-8页。 ②李济仓先生指出庾亮兄弟并非“凭藉宠私”,而是依仗自身的风流气质、文化学识及政治才能立足于贵族社会的,故不应全从外戚角度定性庾氏一门。(氏著《论庾亮》,《中华文史论丛》2006年第3期,第179-212页) ③#12 ④《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》:“祖馥,魏扬州刺史。父靖,镇北将军。……少家洛阳,与武帝同居永安里,又同年,共研席。以旧恩起家太子门大夫”(第1763页)。沛国刘氏符合累官三代且官居五品以上的标准,当属士族。 ⑤[南朝梁]沈约:《宋书》卷六九《刘湛传》:“祖耽,父柳,并晋左光禄大夫、开府仪同三司。湛出继伯父淡,袭封安众县五等男。”(北京:中华书局,1974年,第1815页)南阳刘氏当属士族。 ⑥魏又是王敦从母弟,羊鉴是王敦舅(《世说新语笺疏》卷下之下《仇隙第三十六》“王大将军执司马愍王”条注引《晋阳秋》,第1084页;《晋书》卷八一《羊鉴传》,第2113页)。羊鉴出自汉晋高门泰山南城羊氏,则魏又母族亦当是泰山羊氏。胡志佳研究魏晋之际泰山羊氏的婚姻关系,指出其婚媾对象或为魏晋名家、名士之选,如孔融、蔡邕及琅琊王氏、河内山氏家族。或为一时在政治上颇有发展者,如辛毗、夏侯霸等。(氏著《惠帝羊皇后与西晋政局——兼论羊氏家族的发展》,《逢甲人文社会学报》2004年第8期,第219-240页)故魏又出自士族的可能性较大。 ①[北宋]欧阳修、宋祁:《新唐书》卷一九九《柳冲传》记载两晋南北朝士族,称“过江则为‘侨姓’,王、谢、袁、萧为大”(北京:中华书局,1975年,第5677--5678页)。萧氏是南齐、梁的宗室,固为南朝大族。然于两晋之际,家族仕宦并不显达。如孝懿皇后弟子思话的曾祖亮,任侍御史;祖卓,洮阳令:晋宋之际因外戚身份,其父源之方任徐兗州刺史。(《宋书》卷四一《孝懿萧皇后传》,第1280页;卷七八《萧思话传》,第2011页)故萧氏家族在刘宋初尚不符合士族标准,列为小姓。 ②因山涛名列竹林七贤,且在魏晋禅代和晋初政治中居重要地位,河内山氏家族曾名重一时。然山涛“祖本,郡孝廉。父曜,冤句令”,司马懿也曾戏称山氏家族为“小族”。(《世说新语笺疏》卷上之下《政事第三》“山公以器重朝望”条注引虞预《晋书》,第198页)且山涛后人自中朝后几于宦途无闻,仅山涛孙遐历余姚令、东阳太守,“风政严苛,多任刑杀,郡内苦之”(《世说新语笺疏》卷上之下《政事第三》“山遐去东阳”条注引《江惇传》,第218页),已无士族名士之风,故以河内山氏为小姓。另山涛在魏晋禅代和晋初政治中的地位,参见徐高阮:《山涛论》,《中央研究院历史语言研究所集刊》第41本第1分册(1969),第87--125页。 ③参见王伊同:《五朝门第》,北京:中华书局,2006年。 ④傅乐成:《荆州与六朝政局》,收入王健文主编《政治与权力》,北京:中国大百科全书出版社,2005年,第191--207页。 ⑤参见刘淑芬:《建康与六朝历史的发展》,《六朝的城市与社会》,台北:台湾学生书局,1992年,第3--27页。 ①参见周一良:《魏晋南北朝史札记·(南史>札记》“东晋南朝地理形势与政治”条,第75-82页。 ②[日]川胜义雄著,徐谷梵、李济沧译《六朝贵族制社会研究》,上海古籍出版社,2007年,第163页,注2。 ①到彦之任职跨晋宋两朝,统计出身阶层时计2任,统计迁转、兼任官时计1任。 ①[唐]杜佑撰,王文锦等点校《通典》卷三七《职官一九》“晋官品”条,北京:中华书局,1988年,第1004页。 ②《晋书》卷七三《庾翼传》,第1932页。 ③《宋书》卷五一《长沙景王道怜传》,第1462页。 ④《宋书》卷四四《谢晦传》,第1348页。 ①《宋书》卷五一《营浦侯遵考传》,第1481页。 ②《晋书》卷七六《王廙传》,第2004页。 ③《晋书》卷四五《何攀传》,第1290-1291页;卷三三《石崇传》,第1006页。 ④《宋书》卷六九《刘湛传》,第1816页。 ①在迁出官表中以()表示,下表同。 ②《晋书》卷九九《桓玄传》,第2588、2589页。 ③《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1766、1767页。 ①《晋书》卷八三《殷顗传》,第2179页。《世说新语笺疏》卷上之上《德行第一》“初桓南郡杨广共说殷荆州”条云:“初桓南郡、杨广共说殷荆州,宜夺殷顗南蛮以自树。”(第53页)《晋书》卷八四《杨佺期传》载,杨佺期从弟孜敬“与佺期劝殷仲堪杀殷顗,仲堪不从,孜敬拔刃而起,欲自出取之,仲堪苦禁乃止”(第2202页)。可见殷顗拒绝殷仲堪的要兵后,确有夺职丧身之优。 ②《晋书》卷三七《司马休之传》,第1110页。 ③《宋书》卷四六《张邵传》,第1395页。 ④《晋书》卷八一《桓宣传》,第2117页。 ⑤《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ⑥[北宋]李防等:《太平御览》卷二四二《职官部四十》“诸校尉”条注引傅畅《晋诸公赞》,北京:中华书局,1985年,第1146页。 ①参见本文第一章第三节《西晋的领护校尉制度》。 ②吴廷燮:《晋方镇年表》,《二十五史补编》第三册,北京:中华书局,1956年,第3446页。 ③高敏:《晋武帝“罢州郡兵”问题辨析》,《魏晋南北朝兵制研究》,郑州:大象出版社,1998年,第169页。 ④《晋书》卷二四《职官志》,第747页。 ⑤元康四年(294)至太安二年(303)任职的三任荆州刺史夏侯含、刘彪、宗岱无兼领南蛮校尉的记载(《晋书》卷四三《王澄传附郭舒传》,第1241页;卷四六《刘颂传附弟彪传》,第1308页)。然三人于史籍俱无专传,或有脱载的可能。 ⑥《宋书》卷四四《谢晦传》,第1348页。 ⑦《宋书》卷六一《衡阳文王义季传》,第1654页。 ①《宋书》卷六八《南郡王义宣传》,第1798、1799页。 ②《宋书》卷六八《南郡王义宣传》,第1798页。 ③《宋书》卷六九《刘湛传》,第1816页。 ④《宋书》卷四六《张邵传》,第1395页。 ⑤《宋书》卷七八《萧思话传》,第2013、2014页。 ⑥《宋书》卷六九《刘湛传》,第1816、1817页。 ⑦[南朝梁]萧子显:《南齐书》卷四九《王奂传》,北京:中华书局,1972年,第848页。 ⑧《南齐书》卷四五《始安贞王道生传附子遥光传》,第789页。 ①参见第二章第二节《南蛮校尉始设与西晋灭吴》。 ②[唐]房玄龄等:《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,北京:中华书局,1974年,第1017页。 ③《晋书》卷四三《王戎传》,第1232页。 ④[东晋]常璩撰,任乃强校注《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》:益州别驾何攀献伐吴之策,“前至襄阳,与羊、宗论之”(上海古籍出版社,1984年,第650页)。羊即羊祜,宗即继任王戎的荆州刺史宗廷,可见荆州都督与刺史共商伐吴之策。 ⑤《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1017页。 ⑥《晋书》卷四三《王戎传》,第1232页。 ①吴廷燮:《晋方镇年表》,《二十五史补编》第三册,北京:中华书局,1956年,第3446页。 ②《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》,第650页。 ③《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》,第651页,注3。 ④《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》,第650页。 ⑤[西晋]陈寿撰,[南朝宋]裴松之注《三国志》卷五八《陆抗传》,北京:中华书局,1959年,第1356页。 ⑥咸宁初年,羊祜“表留溶监益州诸军事,加龙骧将军,密令修舟楫”(《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1017页),为伐吴预建顺流之势。王濬因此成为伐吴派的中坚力量。 ⑦《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》,第650页。而《晋书》卷四五《何攀传》记作:“溶兼遣攀过羊祜,而面陈伐吴之策”(第1290页),未语及宗廷。 ⑧《华阳国志校补图注》卷一一《何攀传》,第650页。 ⑨《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第70页。 ①《晋书》卷三四《羊祜传》,第1018页。 ②《晋书》卷三《武帝纪》,第71页。 ③《晋书》卷三四《杜预传》,第1030页。 ④[唐]许敬宗编,罗国威整理《日藏弘仁本文馆词林校证》卷三四八《平吴颂一首并序》,北京:中华书局,2001年,第124页。 ⑤《晋书》卷三三《石崇传》,第1006页。 ⑥《晋书》卷四O《杨骏传》,第1178页;卷四五《何攀传》,第1290-1291页;卷三三《石崇传》,第1006页。 ⑦《晋书》卷三三《石崇传》,第1006页。石崇本传系其出任荆州在元康(291--299)初,然元康初杨骏已诛。另据《晋书》卷四《惠帝纪》:永熙元年(290)八月,“遣南中郎将石崇、……将屯兵四出”(第89页),可知石崇的任职时间至迟在永熙元年八月。 ①《晋书》卷三三《石崇传》,第1006页。 ②徐高阮:《山涛论》,《中央研究院历史语言研究所集刊》第41本第1分册(1969),第87--125页;曹文柱:《西晋前期的党争与武帝的对策》,《北京师范大学学报》1989年第5期,第44--51页。 ③《晋书》卷八六《张轨传》,第2223--2224页。 ④《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1765、1764、1766页。 ⑤《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》:“前广汉太守羊冉说弘以从横之事,弘大怒,斩之。”(第1766页) ⑥《晋书》卷六一《刘乔传》,第1673页。 ⑦《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1766页。 ⑧《晋书》卷六一《刘乔传》,第1675页。 ⑨《晋书》卷六六《刘弘传》,第1767页。 ①参见[日]川胜义雄著,徐谷梵、李济沧译《六朝贵族制社会研究》,上海古籍出版社,2007年,第160-164页。 ②《晋书》卷九八《王敦传》,第2554、2557、2558页。 ③《晋书》卷七六《王廙传》,第2004页。 ④建兴三年(315)陶侃左迁广州后,王廙就曾代任荆州。但王廙先失据杜曾,不得赴任。到州后又诛戮陶侃旧将,“大失荆土之望,人情乖阻”,元帝遂将他召回禁中。(参见《晋书》卷七六《王廙传》,第2004 页)可见王廙的政治、军事才干都非常有限。 ⑤《晋书》卷三七《谯王承传》,第1105、1106页。 ⑥《晋书》卷六《元帝纪》,第156页。 ⑦《晋书》卷三七《谯王承传》,第1106页。[南朝宋]刘义庆撰,[南朝梁]刘孝标注,余嘉锡笺疏,周祖谟等整理《世说新语笺疏》卷下之上《仇隙第三十六》“王大将军执司马愍王”条作“王大将军执司马愍王, 夜遣世将载王于车而杀之”(北京:中华书局,2007年,第1084页),与本传略同。然同条下有谯王承妻赵氏语子谯王无忌日:“王敦昔肆酷汝父,假手世将”(第1084页),同篇“应镇南作荆州”条云:“谯王丞致祸,非大将军意,正是平南所为耳。”(第1085页) ①参见[日]川胜义雄著,徐谷梵、李济沧译《六朝贵族制社会研究》,第168-171页。 ②《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1773页。 ③《晋书》卷七三《庾亮传》,第1918页。 ④《晋书》卷七三《庾亮传》,第1918页。 ⑤参见《世说新语笺疏》下之下《假谲第二十七》“陶公自上流来”条,第1005-1006页:《晋书》卷七三《庾亮传》,第1919页。 ⑥《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1774页。 ⑦田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》,北京大学出版社,2005年,第56页。 ⑧《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1775页。 ⑨田余庆:《东晋门阀政治》,第52-53页。 ⑩《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1775页。 ①[北宋]司马光撰,[元]胡三省注,顾颉刚等点校《资治通鉴》卷九四《晋纪十六》成帝咸和五年(330),北京:中华书局,1956年,第2974页。 ②《晋书》卷六六《陶侃传》,第1776页。 ③田余庆认为陶侃谋废王导在咸和五年(氏著《 [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 魏晋隋唐史 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张金龙]历史文化学院 [issue] => [email] => dingshf04@126.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张金龙 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 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[main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 本文以国有企业思想政治教育创新为研究对象。这里需要指出,尽管在本文的研究中涉及思想政治教育的一般问题,但是研究是以国有企业和创新为思想政治教育重心的。进行国有企业思想政治教育创新研究不是偶然的,是多种条件相互作用的结果。从宏观背景看,经济全球化、文化多元话、时代网络化进程的不断加快,国有企业面即面临着西方敌对势力对我国实行“西化”和“分化”的图谋以及经济日趋激烈的趋势;从中观背景看,改革开放和社会主义市场经济的建立,国有企业面临着职工自主意识的增强和个人权益的强化;从微观环境看,国有企业面临改革所带来的企业组织形式、利益分配和就业方式日趋多样化的情况和问题。这些新情况、新问题使职工的世界观、人生观和价值观面临着巨大的考验。职工树立什么样的人生观和价值观,关系到社会主义事业的兴衰成败以及国有企业的现状和未来。国有企业思想政治教育面临的挑战,看到了对其研究的必要性,激起了对其创新研究的动力。 国有企业思想政治教育创新研究具有丰富的内容,可以把它分为四个方面,一是论述了国企思想政治教育创新对主体的要求。首先阐明何谓主体,然后解说新形势下国有企业思想政治教育中主体应“何为”的问题。二是阐述了国有企业思想政治教育创新对客体的要求。同样,先解说何谓客体,进而论述在思想政治教育创新中客体呈现的状态。三是论证国有企业思想政治教育创新的内容。具体讲解了对原有社会主义意识形态教育的创新、对社会主义理想信念教育的创新以及与时俱进的、应时的全球化意识教育和幸福教育等。四是强调了国有企业思想政治教育创新的价值和作用。阐述了它所具有的经济和政治功能以及对个人全面发展和主观世界的改造所具有的作用,即从社会价值和个人价值两方面进行了理论论证。 研究国有企业思想政治教育创新具有重要的价值。从社会的维度看,研究国有企业思想政治教育创新,对于整个社会的稳定和谐以及发展具有重要作用,对于国企改革和茁壮成长提供精神动力。从个体的维度看,研究国有企业思想政治教育创新,对于提高职工的精神境界和完善人格、促进人的全面发展,对于改造人的主观世界,培育有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律的四有员工具有重要作用。对国有企业思想政治教育的研究已经开始,国内已经发表一些文章和著作,取得一些成果。但是,这些文章大多是关于思想政治教育的一般研究,对国有企业思想政治教育创新的研究还比较少。面对这种状况,我深感在新的时代背景下,加强国有企业思想政治教育创新研究的必要性。本文将运用历史与逻辑相统一的方法、理论与实践相结合的方法、系统分析的方法以及微观与宏观研究相结合的方法,试图在研究国有企业思想政治教育创新方面有新的贡献。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223240.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-28 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 思想政治教育 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => The research object of this article is the ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. It should be noted that, while involved in this study the general problem of ideological and political education, but the study treats state-owned enterprises and innovation as the focus of ideological and political education. Innovative research of ideological and political education in the state-owned enterprises is not accidental, but is the result of the interaction of a variety of conditions. From the macroscopic view, economic globalization, cultural diversity and then the accelerating the process of the network, state-owned enterprises are facing the conspiracy of "Westernization" and "Division" from the western hostile forces and the increasingly fierce economic trends. From intermediate macro view, with the reform and opening-up and the establishment of socialist market economy, state-owned enterprises are faced with the enhancement of workers' consciousness of self-determination and the strengthening of individual rights. From microcosmic view, state-owned enterprises face the diversity of the enterprise organization forms, distribution of interests and employment ways which are brought with the reform. These new situations and questions make the worker's world outlook, the outlook on life and values face a huge test. That workers set what kind of life and value, is related to the cause of socialism and vicissitudes of state-owned enterprises in the present and future. The challenge of ideological and political education in state-owned enterprises let us notice the need for the research, and provoke a power for its innovative research. Ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises has a wealth of content, and it can be divided into four areas. Firstly, it discusses requirements for subject of the ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. First, clarifying what is the subject, and then explaining how ideological and political education in the state-owned enterprises deal with what the subject should be under new situations.Secondly, it discusses requirements for object of the ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. It not only explains what the object is but also presents the state of the object. Thirdly, it demonstrates the content of ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. The article gives detailed explanation for innovation in original socialist ideology education, the socialist ideals and beliefs education, advancing global awareness education and well-being education and so on. Fourthly, it emphasizes the value and effect of state-owned enterprise ideological and political education innovation. The article describes the function in not only economic and political but also the individual comprehensive development and the transformation of subjective world, namely it proves the theory from social value as well as personal value. It has important value for the study of ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. From a social dimension, the study of ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises places an important role in the stability, harmony and development for the whole society and provides spiritual power for the development and reform of state enterprise. From the individual dimension, the study of ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises functions well in improving their mental outlook, improving the dignity, promoting the comprehensive development, transforming people's subjective world and cultivating the ideal, moral, educated and disciplined stuff. The research of ideological and political education in state-owned enterprises has already begun, and a number of articles and books have been published. However, these articles are mostly on general studies, and it still has relatively little research in ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. Facing this situation, I deeply feel the need in strengthening state-owned enterprise ideological and political education innovation. This paper will use the methods of the combination of history and logic, theory and practice and micro and macro and method of system analysis to make an attempt in the research of ideological and political education innovation in state-owned enterprises. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [徐国亮] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 徐国亮 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 30205 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 49024 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 国有企业;;思想政治教育;;创新研究 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 王景仪 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => Ideological and Political Education Innovation in the State-owned Enterprises [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => F276.1;D64 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 思想政治教育,国有企业,创新研究 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 5 [id] => _Ktr32YBFjIhTVEbO5Qb [tags] => 0 ) [12] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 随着电力企业变电站建设的不断完善,建立一个变电站综合监控系统对电力企业来说越来越重要。目前供电企业缺乏一套综合的、统一的变电站监控系统。综合监控系统是建立在各专业监控系统之上,整合各专业监控子系统,实现变电站监控的统一管理和统一维护,综合监控系统能够从各专业监控系统或设备中提取故障和性能数据进行集中监控,以掌握变电站运行状况,从而进行数据的综合性和相关性分析,为电力企业的监控中心提供分析和决策的数据依据。 本文对电力企业变电站综合监控系统进行了深入的分析,并从软件工程的角度在系统总体概述、系统组网结构及平台选择、系统体系结构、系统功能设计、主要功能及关键代码实现等方面进行了细致的分析。 整个综合监控系统采用了分层体系结构,系统的软件体系结构分为四个层次,分别是源数据采集层、数据持久层、业务逻辑层、表示层。综合监控系统的应用是为了对变电站进行有效监控及管理。根据需求,系统分别对四大功能域:系统定制预案、视频监控联网接入、智能门禁系统联网接入、变电站各种告警信息联网接入等功能进行了详细的设计描述。 系统定制预案可自由定制,分操控预案、联动预案。操控预案:在发生报警时,系统提供给操作人员的操作、处理流程建议。联动方案:在系统发生报警时,系统自动进行一系列的操作、处理。视频监控联网接入集成视频监控、录像、回放检索、网络远程传输,远程云台镜头、高速球控制等管理功能,实现集中管理、全天候、全方位实时监控。智能门禁系统联网接入让监控维护人员及时掌握和维护门禁信息,并能在电子地图中发现门禁报警的位置,做到快速发现、准确定位。告警信息联网接入实现告警的统一监控,快速对发生的告警进行定位、判断、并加以处理,减少故障历时。 综合监控系统完成后,能实现对变电站设备和环境的运行控制及状态和运行参数显示,为电力企业监控中心提供了一套功能强大的监控工具,可以改善监控中心的运行维护效率,实现集中存储、集中维护、集中监控、集中管理,实现了变电站减员增效的目的,系统投入运行后,为电力企业带来了巨大的经济效益。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011230259.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-20 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-15 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 计算机技术 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => With power supply company in the construction of substations, establish a comprehensive monitoring system in substations for power supply company more and more important. But at home, power supply company lacks a comprehensive, integrated substation monitoring system. Integrated substation monitoring System is based on the professional monitoring system, integration of the professional monitoring subsystem, substation monitoring resources to achieve the reunification of unified management and scheduling, from the professional monitoring system or equipment extracted fault and performance data, which integrated data and related analysis, power suppy company monitoring operators to provide analysis and decision-making based on the data. In this paper, integrated monitoring management system depth study of key technology, from the perspective of software engineering functions outlined in the overall system, system network structureand platform of choice, the system architecture, system functional design, Functions and the implementation codes, have carried out detailed analysis. The integrated monitoring system uses a layered architecture. System software architecture is divided into four levels. The are the source of the data acquisition layer, data persistence layer, business logic layer, presentation layer. The key technology applications of ntegrated monitoring System are to enhance and improve the management of substation. According to business needs. monitoring system divided into four major functional domains:System customization plan, Video monitoring and network access, Intelligent access control system network access, Internet access to all kinds of alarm information substation. Custom plans are free to customize the system, divided into control plans, the linkage plan. contorl plans:In the event of an alarm, the system provides to the operator's operation, process flow recommendations. linkage plan:In the event of an alarm system, the system automatically through a series of operations to deal with. Video monitoring and control network access integrated video surveillance, recording, playback retrieval, network distance transmission, remote camera, high-speed ball control and other management functions, achieve centralized management, all-weather, all-round real-time monitoring. Intelligent access control system network access make maintenance personnel to monitor and maintain the access control information to grasp, found in the electronic map of the location of access control alarm, so quickly found, and accurate positioning. Internet access to all kinds of alarm information substation unified the alarm monitoring and rapid positioning of the alarm occurred, to determine and address and reduce the fault duration. After completing, integrated monitoring System can display operational control and status and parameter of Substation equipment and the environment and provide a set of proven tools for power supply company, improve operational efficiency of monitoring centor, achieve operational focus and concentrate maintenance, centralized control, centralized management, thereby achieving to increase efficiency purposes. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 63 [title_cn] => 变电站综合监控系统的设计与实现 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1].变电站综合自动化原理及应用,丁书文等编著,中国电力出版社,2003 [2].监控组态软件及其应用,马国华主编,清华大学出版社2004 [3].变电站微机检测与控制,孙淑信编,水利电力出版社1995 [4].变电站自动化工程图集,南京中德保护控制系统有限公司编,中国电力出版社2003 [5].数据采集应用与编程,研华(中国)有限公司2004 [6].变电所电气设备及运行,河南省电力工业局编,中国电力出版社1995 [7].监控组态软件与PLC入门,严盈富编,人民邮件出版社2006 [8]TCP/IP网络原理与技术.周明天汪文勇北京:清华大学出版社,2005 [9]网络工程与网络管理 曾明等编著 电子工业出版社 2005 [10]网络信息处理技术鲁正火 电子工业出版社2006 [11]网络管理技术. 李大友主编 电子工业出版社2005 [12]计算机网络原理与技术刘化君编著 电子工业出版社2005 [13]计算机组网技术及应用 薛庆吉等主编 电子工业出版社2006 [14]网络管理与维护技术 曾强刘超群主编 化学工业出版社2005 [15]Oracle高级编程孙杨、任鸿清华大学出版社2007 [16]Web应用开发原理与技术王继成机械工业出版社2005 [17]网络规划与设计曾慧玲陈杰义冶金工业出版社2005 [18]计算机网络教程张华忠主编 山东科学技术出版社 [19]ORACLE开发人员指南 (美)Edward Honour著机械工业出版社 西蒙与舒斯特国际出版公司2006 [20]远端机房监控系统的功能冯索夫有线电视技术2006 [21]Telecommunications Network Management System(NMS) 2007.下载网 址:http://www.ilc.tom/telecom.html [22]William H.inmon.Building The Data Warehouse(Fourth Edition).Wiley Publishing Inc.2007,下载网址http://www.itpub.net/ [23]Oracle9i Database Generic Documentation Addendum.2006,下载网址:http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/oracle9i.html [24]Alan Beaulieu,Sanjay Mishra.Mastering Oracle SQL(2Edition).2007.下载网址:http://ebook.vopen.net [25]IFS Applications for Network Construction & Maintenance,2007.下 载网址: http://www.ifsworld.com/cn/industries/telecommunications/network_cons truction_maintenance/default.asp [26]A platform for building integrated telecommunications network management applications, Prabha G. Chadayammuri,2007 http://findarticl.es.com/p/articles/mi_mOHPJ/is_n5_v47/ai_18895244 [27]. Electric energy systems theory[专著]an introduction [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张华忠;牟元恩] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张华忠;牟元恩 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 81203 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 53063 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 综合监控系统;;状态和运行参数;;集中管理 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 耿建 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => The Design and Implementation of Integrated Monitoring System in Substation [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TM63;TM76 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 综合监控系统,状态和运行参数,集中管理 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 3 [id] => g6tq32YBFjIhTVEbv4Vn [tags] => 0 ) [13] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 20世纪后期,由于科学技术的迅猛发展,工业化和现代化规模的空前壮大,新的理念、追求、生活方式和人生价值等各个方面都受到了严重的冲击。这在音乐创作方面的反应,便是对于新的音乐素材、技法构思的重新认识和追求。与此同时,音乐形式上的自律论更受到了作曲家的重视与推崇,他们放弃了音乐的思想与情感,把音乐当做纯粹的音乐游戏,而不再是与听众交流的工具。钢琴作为乐器之王,在音乐发展历史上的每一个阶段都占有极其重要的地位。尤其自巴洛克以来,几乎每一位作曲大师都致力于钢琴音乐作品的创作于革新。进入20世纪,钢琴作为现代音乐实验场的功能完全显现出来。奥地利作曲家约翰尼斯·玛利亚·施陶德(Johannes Maria Staud,1974-)的钢琴作品《运动》Bewegungen正是创作于这一时期。 奥地利作曲家约翰尼斯·玛利亚·施陶德(Johannes Maria Staud) 1974年8月17日出生于因斯布鲁克。他曾在奥地利和柏林学习作曲,并在伦敦居住进行创作。在上学期间以及毕业后,他创作了许多优秀的音乐作品,多次获得国内外各种奖项。他的音乐作品被全世界各大知名音乐团体演奏。至今,他已经建立了一个稳固的国际化事业,包括作为美国坦格尔伍德(Tanglewood)音乐中心特邀客座作曲家时常前往美国。他游历过许多国家和城市,不同的地方能够给他带来不同的创作灵感,但他并没有刻意改变自己的创作风格,他仍然是一位奥地利作曲家。施陶德没有刻意赢得他的听众对他的作品的积极追求,而是由忠于自己对于艺术的信念。 他创作的钢琴独奏作品《运动》(Bewegungen fur Klavier,1996),用音乐这一特殊的方式表达了作曲家对身处的这个社会、自然与生活的认识。音乐中的运动与冲突也正是社会中的运动与冲突。造成音乐强烈的运动、冲突与不安的效果,是这部作品对音乐材料的特殊运用。作品摆脱了调性的束缚,在无调性的前提下,却仍保持了调性原则的存在,也就是支持音的存在。在和声音程方面,大七度的运用几乎贯穿了整部作品,这种不协和的感觉自始至终都是无准备、无解决地出现,给人造成强烈的不安。节奏方面也采用了现代音乐常用的复杂节‘奏型,增加了音乐的表现力。在力度方面,作品整体的强弱对比与局部的强弱迅速转换,给作品带来了强烈的冲突感。作品在结构上,虽然摆脱了传统意义上的曲式结构,但仍可以划分出两个大的部分和一个采用第一部分材料形成的较长的尾声。 在练习这首当代钢琴作品时,许多问题是从前没有遇到过的。例如:拍子是最令人头疼的问题。这首作品几乎每一个小节都在变换拍子,甚至在许多小节内部也会出现拍子的改变。例如将4/2、3/2、5/4、7/8的拍子可以转换成8/4、6/4、5/4、3/4+1/8练习。并且,长时间的空拍若处理不当便会给人以一种尴尬、音乐停滞的感觉。这要求在音乐的休止时演奏状态不能松懈。另外,这首作品存在着十分强烈的强弱对比,最强处达到sfff,而结尾最弱处则为PPPPP。在处理这首作品时,要像做实验一样反复推敲,有时甚至要借用弱音踏板的帮助才能达到最佳效果。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1012250711.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-25 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 音乐学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => The late 20th century, due to. the rapid development of science and technology, the unprecedented scale of industrialization and modernization and expansion, new ideas, the pursuit, lifestyle and value of work and other aspects of life has been seriously challenged. This is in response to music is the language for the new materials, new understanding and techniques to pursue the idea. At the same time, in the form of self-discipline of music by the composer more attention and esteem, they gave up the thoughts and feelings of music.They considered the music as pure music, games, and is no longer a communication tool with the audience. King of the piano as a musical instrument in the history of musical development at every stage occupies an extremely important position. In particular, since the Baroque, nearly every composer masters is committed to the creation of the piano music in the innovation. The 20th century, the piano as a testing ground for modern music features fully apparent. Austrian composer Johannes Maria Staud (1974-)'s piano works "movement" Bewegungen is created in this period. Austrian composer Johannes Maria Staud was born on August Innsbruck at 1974. He had studed composition in the Austrian and Berlin, and then creared in London. During he studed In school and after graduation, he created a lot of great music composition.Has won various awards at home and abroad. His music is known around the world in major music group performances. So far, he has built a solid international career, including as the U.S. Tanglewood Music Center composer often invited guest to the United States. He traveled through many countries and cities, different places can give him a different creative inspiration.But he did not deliberately change their writing style, he still was a Austrian composer. Staud did not deliberately applied to win his audience on the active pursuit of his work, but by loyalty to their faith in the arts. His works Bewegungen for piano solo with the particular forms of music expressed the society, nature and life Staud living in. Music in the movement and the conflicts is the movement and conflict of the society. Caused by the movement's strong, conflict and anxiety effects of this work is the special use of music materials. Works out of the shackles of tonality, but there is still the principle of transfer, which is to support the existence of sound. And sound way, the large use of almost seven times throughout the whole work, this is not the feeling throughout the Union are not prepared, no solution appeared, giving the cause unease. Rhythm is also used by the complexity of modern music rhythm type, which increases the performance of the music. Strength on the work force compared with the overall strength of the local work quickly converted to bring a strong sense of conflict. Work in the structure, although out of the traditional musical structure, but still can be divided into two major parts, and a material used to form the first part of the long end. This is the first in the practice of contemporary piano works, many of the problems previously not encountered before. For example:the beat is the most headaches. In this piece, in almost every section of tempo change, even in many sections will also appear within the tempo changes. For example, the 4/2,3/2,5/4, 7/8 beat can be converted into 8/4,6/4,5/4,3/4+1/8 exercises. And, for a long time if not handled properly the air will give the film an awkward sense of musical stagnation. This requires ending the music playing when the state can not relax. In addition, this piece there is a very strong intensity contrast, the strongest place to sfff, and weakest at the end was ppppp. In dealing with this piece, we should like the experiment as repeated scrutiny, such as the damper pedal can be used to help to achieve the best results. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200810927 [page] => 46 [title_cn] => 约翰尼斯·玛利亚·施陶德及其钢琴作品《运动》的介绍与分析 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => ①于润洋,《西方音乐通史》[M],上海:上海音乐出版社,2003:341-414 ①于润洋,《现代西方音乐哲学导论》[M],湖南:湖南教育出版社,2000:386 ①西奥多.阿多诺(Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno 1903.09.11-1969.08.06),德国哲学家、社会学家、音乐理论家,法兰克福学派第一代的主要代表人物,社会批判理论的理论奠基者。 ①于润洋,《现代西方音乐哲学导论》[M],湖南:湖南教育出版社,2000:386 ①姚恒璐,《现代音乐分析方法教程》[M],湖南:湖南文艺出版社,2003:59 ①[美]阿伦·福特著,胡晓编译,《音级集合理论概述》[J].音乐探索,1987,03:91-94. ①姚恒璐,《现代音乐分析方法教程》[M],湖南:湖南文艺出版社,2003:162-166 [1]Interview with Johannes Maria Staud [EB/OL]. http://www.bcmg.org.uk/default.php?id=628 [2]Johannes Maria Staud Coaches Composition Majors [EB/OL]. http://www.oberlin.edu/stupub/ocreview/2008/02/29/arts/Johannes_Maria_Stau d Coach.html [3]Johannes Maria Staud-One Movement and Five Miniatures [EB/OL]。 http://www.bcmg.org.uk/default.php?id=368 [4]于润洋,《西方音乐通史》[M],上海:上海音乐出版社,2003:341-414 [5]于润洋,《现代西方音乐哲学导论》[M],湖南:湖南教育出版社,2000:386 [6]姚恒璐,《现代音乐分析方法教程》[M],湖南:湖南文艺出版社,2003:59 [7][美]阿伦·福特著,胡晓编译,《音级集合理论概述》[J].音乐探索,1987,03:91-94. [8]姚恒璐,《现代音乐分析方法教程》[M],湖南:湖南文艺出版社,2003:162-166 [9]钟子林,《20世纪西方音乐》[M],北京:中央民族大学出版社,2006:248-246 [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 钢琴表演与教学研究 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [侯康为]山东大学艺术学院 [issue] => [email] => cuckoo320@live.cn [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 侯康为 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 50402 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => hou kang wei [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => du juan [job_no] => [volume_label] => 53113 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 约翰尼斯·玛利亚·施陶德;;《运动》;;当代钢琴音乐 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13774436421 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 杜鹃 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学艺术学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 艺术学院 [title_en] => The Introduction and Analysis of Johannes Maria Staud and His Piano Work Bewegungen [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Johannes Maria Staud ;Bewegungen; modern piano composition [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => J624.1 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => johannesmariastaudbewegungenmodernpianocomposition [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 运动,约翰尼斯·玛利亚·施陶德,johannesmariastaudbewegungenmodernpianocomposition,当代钢琴音乐 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 7105b7fa75b3a61e1c8c71b6e034fbba1011573766 [hints] => 3 [id] => 7atq32YBFjIhTVEbsYTn [tags] => 0 ) [14] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 未来的移动通信系统需要支持更高的传输速率,容纳更多的用户,并且保障多种业务的服务质量(QoS)。在多用户共享的无线网络中,设计有效的无线分组调度算法将有助于实现这一目标。在无线网络中,调度的有效性和公平性通常是两个相互矛盾的性能指标,调度算法必须根据不同用户的QoS要求,在二者之间取得最优折中。因此,如何设计出既能保证用户的QoS,又能提高系统容量的分组调度算法是当前无线通信领域的一个研究热点。 本文从分析无线网络特点入手,介绍了无线分组调度技术的研究现状,给出了无线分组调度算法的分类、设计目标及性能评价标准,指出了当前面临的一些挑战。论文首先针对时变环境下时分复用的无线网络分组调度机制进行了研究,考虑到日后用户业务需求的多样性,以数据类业务和语音类业务为例分别展开讨论。由于不同的业务有着自身的特点和不同的QoS要求,在设计调度算法时考虑的因素也有所不同。例如,数据业务需要传输大量的数据,这就要求算法可以提供较高的数据速率,保证系统吞吐量;语音业务则对时延十分敏感,要求算法尽量减少时延,保证短期公平性。 文中首先给出了TDMA系统中的分组调度模型,介绍了RR、MAX C/I和PF三种适用于数据业务的经典算法,考虑到用户的访问时延这一因素,为了提高用户间的短期公平,在PF算法的基础上提出了改进的比例公平(M-PF)算法。该算法为每个用户维护一个访问时延计时器,使访问时延接近时延上限的用户优先获得调度机会。仿真结果表明,M-PF算法在实现严格长期公平基础上,大大提高了系统的短期公平性,仅在系统吞吐量方面较PF算法有极少的损失。 针对语音业务的研究,文中首先对M-LWDF和EXP这两种经典的调度算法进行了分析,考虑到语音业务对于分组时延的具体要求(分组超时率、超时期限等),依然采用PF算法的调度思想,提出了加权指数比例公平(WEPF)算法。该算法将指数化的分组等待时间加入判决准则中,设置了一个优先级区分参量,同时引入时延补偿机制,通过设定一个预超时门限,提前使即将超时的分组优先级提高,增加了其被调度的可能。在用户QoS要求相同和不同的假设条件下进行了仿真,结果表明WEPF算法大大降低了用户的分组超时率和时延抖动,提高了系统的综合性能,更好的保证了服务质量。 作为下一代移动通信的核心技术,OFDM技术可以在增加频谱利用率的同时提高系统的抗多径衰落能力。因此,OFDM系统中的分组调度算法也成为时下的一项研究热点。由于OFDM系统中的资源是时频二维的,因此设计针对该系统的调度与资源分配方案时,与一般的基于时分或码分复用的系统相比也有所不同。 文中最后对OFDM系统中的无线分组调度算法进行了研究,首先简单介绍了OFDM技术,描述了OFDM系统中的资源分配方案,给出了OFDM系统的调度模型。随后对系统进行数学建模,给出了三种用于该模型下的调度算法(K&H算法、McPF算法和加入子载波微调的K&H算法),比较了不同算法的性能。仿真结果表明McPF算法以损失微小的系统吞吐量为代价,在公平性和吞吐量方面取得了较好的折中;同时,子载波微调技术的引入可以更好的保证算法的短期公平性。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011227413.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-20 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-22 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 通信与信息系统 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Future mobile communication system needs to support higher transmission rate, accommodate more users, and protect the quality of service (QoS) for a variety of businesses. In a multi-user shared wireless network, to design effective wireless packet scheduling algorithm is helpful to achieving this goal. In wireless networks, the effectiveness and fairness of scheduling technology are usually two conflicting performances. Scheduling algorithms must obtain the best compromise between these two indicators based on QoS requirements of different users. Therefore, to design a packet scheduling algorithm which not only can ensure user's QoS, but also improve the system capacity is currently a hot research topic in wireless communication field. By analyzing the characteristics of wireless networks, the situation of wireless packet scheduling technology is introduced, the classification, design objectives and performance evaluation criteria are given, and thesis points out some of the challenges facing now. Firstly, the packet scheduling mechanism in time-division multiplexing wireless network with time-varying environment is studied. Taking into account the diversity of business needs of future users, discussion takes data business and voice business as example, respectively. Because different types of business have their own characteristics and different QoS requirements, the considerations are different during scheduling algorithm design. For example, data business often has a large amount of data need to transport, which require higher data rate from scheduling algorithms to ensure the system throughput. Voice business is very sensitive to delay, requiring algorithms to minimize delay and ensure short-term fairness. The thesis first describes the packet scheduling model in TDMA system, introduces RR, MAX C/I and PF three classic algorithms applied to data business. Taking into account the factor of the user's access delay, in order to improve the user's short-term fairness, modified proportion fairness (M-PF) algorithm is proposed based on PF algorithm. This algorithm maintains an access delay timer for each user, so that the user whose access delay is close to the maximum delay can get prior scheduling opportunity. Simulation results show that, M-PF algorithm is strict fair on long-term, as well as greatly improves the short-term fairness of the system, only in terms of system throughput has very little loss than PF algorithm. For voice business studies, the two classic scheduling algorithms M-LWDF and EXP are analyzed. Taking into account specific requirements (packet timeout rate, timeout limit, etc.) for packet delay of voice business, still using the idea of PF, weighted exponent proportion fairness (WEPF) algorithm is proposed. The algorithm adds exponentiated packet waiting time into discriminative rule, sets a prioritizing parameter, and time delay compensation mechanism is introduced by set a pre-timeout threshold, so priority of nearly timeout packet can be raised, the possibility of being scheduled will be increased. Under the assumption of same and different user's QoS the simulation results show that the WEPF algorithm greatly reduces user's packet delay and jitter, improves the system's overall performance and better ensures the quality of service. As a core technology of next generation mobile communication, OFDM technology can increase spectrum efficiency and improve system's ability of resistance to multipath fading. Therefore, packet scheduling algorithm in OFDM system has become nowadays a hot topic. Since resources in OFDM systems are two-dimensional time-frequency, so the design of scheduling and resource allocation scheme for this system is different from systems based on time-division or code-division multiplexing. Finally, wireless packet scheduling algorithm in the OFDM system is studied. First briefly introduces the OFDM technology, describes the resource allocation scheme in OFDM system, an OFDM system scheduling model is given. Then a mathematical model of the system and three scheduling algorithms (K&H, McPF and K&H with sub-carrier fine-tuning) for the model are given. Performances of different algorithms are compared. Simulation results show that in the cost of small system throughput loss, McPF algorithm achieves good compromise in terms of fairness and throughput. At the same time, adding sub-carriers fine tuning can better ensure the performance of short-term fairness. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200811502 [page] => 83 [title_cn] => 基于比例公平无线分组调度算法的研究与改进 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]祁玉生,邵世祥.现代移动通信系统[M].北京:人民邮电出版社,1999:12-15. [2]KNUTSSON J.. Call Admission on the Uplink of a CDMA System Based on Total Received Power[C].//IEEE ICC'99. Vancouver:IEEE,1999:1431-1436. [3]ARRAY C.. Personal Cell Core Technology [DB/OL]. http://www.arraycomm. com/pcct/spectral_efficiency.htm. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 宽带无线数字移动通信理论与应用技术 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [张春业]信息科学与工程学院 [issue] => [email] => ljq9477@yahoo.com.cn [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 张春业 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 81001 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => zhang chun ye [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => li jing qing [job_no] => [volume_label] => 51912 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 无线通信;;分组调度;;比例公平;;服务质量;;正交频分复用 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 15863154237 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 李婧卿 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 信息科学与工程学院 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 硕士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 信息科学与工程学院 [title_en] => Research and Modification of Wireless Packet Scheduling Algorithm Based on Proportion Fairness [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => Wireless Communication; Packet Scheduling; Proportional Fairness; QoS; OFDM [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TN929.5 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_keyword_en] => wirelesscommunication,packetscheduling,qos,proportionalfairness,ofdm [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 分组调度,qos,服务质量,ofdm,packetscheduling,比例公平,正交频分复用,无线通信,wirelesscommunication,proportionalfairness [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 9636c30e75ae0430fb15c650cfcf85f1-1755200142 [hints] => 3 [id] => nKtq32YBFjIhTVEb2omq [tags] => 0 ) [15] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 本论文在调研固相合成化学和无机含硼、碳、氮化合物性能的基础上,发展了一种添加剂辅助制备无机非氧化物纳米材料的新型固相合成技术。内容包括硫辅助合成、硫钠协同辅助合成、及镁水解辅助合成等三种不同的合成路线。目标材料有9种硼化物、8种碳化物、9种氮化物、及6种单质或金属氢化物。本论文详细介绍了此三种添加剂辅助合成路线的反应机理,并研究了几种代表性含硼、碳、氮化合物纳米材料的晶体生长规律。本论文所涉及的添加剂辅助制备无机非氧化物材料的方法为研究固相反应的化学反应动力学提供了新颖素材,也为低温制备含硼、碳、氮化合物提供了参考思路。 (1)硫辅助合成氮化物纳米材料 由于氮化物的质地坚硬、难熔、耐化学侵蚀并且具有特殊的光、电、磁效应,使其成为一类重要的工程材料。如高性能陶瓷材料(Si3N4, MgSiN2, AlN, TiN,TaN),耐摩擦涂层(TiN, ZrN, CrN),超硬材料(IrN2, OsN2),光学半导体材料(GaN, InN),储能材料(Li3N、VN、CrN),催化剂(VN、Fe4N),润滑剂(h-BN),超导材料(ZrN)等。传统的制备方法常需极高的反应温度(>1000℃)并在保护气氛(N2或NH3)下将元素的单质或化合物进行氮化,且产物多为微米尺度或微纳尺度的混合粉体。 本章中,通过S与NaN3在高压釜内250℃下的发热反应引发单质粉体的氮化反应,成功合成出了Si3N4、TiN、BN、AlN、ZrN等多种氮化物纳米材料。论文重点考察了反应温度对产物晶型和形貌的影响,如随着加热温度的升高,Si3N4中的α/β两相比例由9下降到5;TiN晶体经历一个从无规则颗粒到八面体最终三维枝晶的形貌演化;BN从2nm厚的薄膜演转变成30nm厚的囊泡;AlN由纳米颗粒生长为短棒;ZrN也从纳米颗粒演变出部分八面体晶体。本章还探讨了硫辅助合成技术的两种可能反应机理:(1)经历一个硫化物中间态然后再固相复分解到最终氮化物;(2)伴随S/NaN3反应释放的热能和N2直接自蔓延高温氮化。此外,用12和NH2CONHSNH2取代S,或用NaNH2取代NaN3,或用氧化物和Mg粉的混合物取代单质,在较低的温度下也可得到氮化物纳米材料。 (2)硫钠协同辅助合成含硼、碳、氮无机化合物纳米材料 由于硼和碳具有较强的成键能力,导致形成的大部分无机硼化物和碳化物具有稳定的化学性能。此外,特殊的光、电、磁、热电传导或机械性能使得它们备受人们关注,如选择性催化剂(Fe, Co, Ni的非晶硼化物、WC),超导材料(MgB2, NbB2, MoB, W2B),结构和中子吸收材料(B4C),超硬耐磨材料(立方BN),篮、绿光和紫外光的发光材料(SiC),机械加工材料(TiC)等。然而制备硼化物和碳化物都面临着类似制备氮化物的问题:反应温度高,需惰性气体保护以及尺寸分布不均等问题。 本论文在硫辅助合成(SAS)的基础上,发展出硫-钠协同辅助低温引发合成技术,即利用高压釜内的硫-钠于150℃自放热反应,同步引发氧化物与还原剂(Mg、活性炭、无定形硼粉)的还原及再转化反应。此法成功制备出Si3N4、TiN、BN、AlN、VN及MgSiN2等几种氮化物纳米材料。并在此基础上采用了硫-钠协同辅助合成出一系列无机硼化物(如LaB6、CeB6、PrB6、SmB6、EuB6、TiB2、ZrB2、NbB2等)和碳化物(TiC、WC、ZrC、NbC、SiC等)纳米材料。 (3)镁水解辅助氧化物的还原与转化 氧化物是自然界存在最为普遍的化合物之一,也是制备其它化合物的重要原料。同样因为氧化物稳定的化学性质,还原金属或非金属氧化物往往需要选择高温(>1000℃)和强还原剂(H2、CO、C、活泼金属Li、Na、Mg等)。因此,研究氧化物的低温还原及转化反应具有重要的科学意义和使用价值。 本论文中,利用高压釜内金属镁粉水解来辅助氧化物的还原及转化。具体为,在150℃时首先发生镁粉的水解反应,释放出大量的热能和H2;在此热能协助下,氧化物被Mg和H2还原成单质或低价氧化物或生成金属氢化物(TiH2、Si、Mo、Zr、W等);还原出来的活性单质,再在氨水体系中转化为对应的氮化物(TiN、VN、BN、AlN、CrN等),在活性碳的体系中转化为对应的碳化物(SiC、TiC、VC、WC、W2C、ZrC、MoC、NbC等),在无定形硼粉体系中转化为对应的硼化物(TiB2、MoB2、DyB4、ErB4、YB4、LaB6、CeB6、SmB6、EuB6)。利用自制的高压釜内部温度实时检测装置,我们定性观察到当釜内温度达到150℃时,体系在几秒内迅速升温降温,热电偶显示的最高温度超过了800℃。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011170526.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-20 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-28 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 无机化学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => This thesis is focused on the design and applications of a new solid-state synthesis technology-additive assisted synthesis (AAS). The contents are related to the preparation of several hydride, boride, carbide, and nitride nanocrystals through three AAS approaches:sulfur assisted synthesis, sulfur-sodium co-assisted synthesis, and magnesium-hydrolysis assisted synthesis. The reaction mechanisms and crystalline developments of these AAS processes are discussed in the thesis. We believe that these AAS results may provide a possible sample for the research of chemical reaction dynamics, and offer some new ideas for low-temperature synthesis of boride, carbide and nitride nanomaterials. (1) Sulphur assisted synthesis of nitride nanomaterials. Nitrides are important technological materials due to their specific properties including thermal, mechanical, and chemical stabilities, wide band-gap, and electrical conductivity. Thus, nitrides can be applied in many fields, for example, as ceramics (Si3N4, MgSiN2, A1N, TiN, TaN), abrasion-resistant coatings (TiN, ZrN, CrN), superhard materials (IrN2, OSN2), light semiconductors (GaN, InN), Energy storage materials (L3N, VN, CrN), catalysts (VN, Fe4N), lubricants (h-BN), superconducting films (ZrN). Traditionally, nitrides are prepared at high temperatures (>1000℃) under the protection of inert gas (N2, NH3, H2), and the products are usually mix of nano-and micro-sized powders. In this thesis, several nitride (S13N4, TiN, BN, AlN and ZrN) nanomaterials have been synthesized from single element powders, which are assisted with the exothermic reactions of sulphur (S) and sodium azide (NaN3) at 250℃. Elevating the treatment temperature could affect the phases and morphologies of the final products. For example, when the temperature rasied from 250℃to 500℃, theα/βphase ratio of Si3N4 will reduce from 9 to 5; as for TiN crystals, a shape evolution from quasi-spherical nanograin to octahedron, and finally dendrites could be found during the elevating of temperature; BN quasi-hollow spheres (400℃) with a wall thickness of~30nm can be obtained instead of BN membranes (250℃) with~2 nm thickness; AlN short-rods and ZrN octahedron will also be found at a treatment temperature above 400℃. Two reaction mechanisms are discussed in this thesis:①elf-ignite to sulfide intermediate first, following experience a solid-state metathesis reaction to nitride;②elf-ignite first, following experience a self-propagation high-temperature synthesis to nitride. Nitride nanomaterials can also be obtained at a low temperature if we use I2 or NH2CONHSNH2 instead of S, or NaNH2 instead of NaN3, or oxides with Mg powders instead of single elements. (2) Sulphur-sodium co-assisted synthesis of boride, carbide and nitride nanomaterials. Boron and carbon can form strong chemical bonds with other elements, which make the borides and carbides have stable chemical properties and interesting light-, or electro-, or magnetic-, or thermo-, or mechanical properties, along with various applications:like selective catalysts (amorphous borides like Fe-B, Co-B, Ni-B), superconductors (MgB2,NbB2, MoB, W2B), neutron absorbing material (B4C), luminescent material (SiC), superhard materials (c-BN), machining material (TiC), etc.. Similar to the preparation of nitrides, borides and carbides are often be synthesized under high temperatures and the protection of inert gas, and the products are usually have widely size and morphology dispersion, which may affect their applications in various fields. In this thesis, a new sulphur-sodium co-assisted synthesis method is developed based on the sulphur assisted synthesis (SAS). In this method, the exothermic reactions of S and Na will start at~150℃, with the released impulsion and heat energy, oxides can be deoxidized by reducing agents (Mg, or active carbon, or amorphous boron) and transformed into related niride (Si3N4, TiN, BN, AlN, VN, MgSiN2), carbide (TiC, WC, ZrC, NbC, SiC), or boride (LaB6, CeB6, PrB6, SmB6, EuB6, TiB2, ZrB2, NbB2) nanomaterials. (3) Magnesium-hydrolysis assisted reduction and conversion of oxides. Oxides are the most common chemicals in nature and they are the raw materials to produce related single elements or other compounds. Owing to their stable chemical properties, oxides always need high temperatures (>1000℃) and high-activity reducing agents (H2, CO, C, Li, Na, Mg, etc.). Thus, it is meaningful to elaborate the reduction and transformation mechanism of oxides at low temperatures. In this part, the exothermic reaction of magnesium hydrolysis is utilized to assist the reduction and transformation of oxides. The exact mechanism should be as following:the Mg hydrolysis reaction starts at 150℃, with the released H2 and heat energy, oxides can be deoxidized by reducing agents (Mg, H2, or active carbon, or amorphous boron) and transformed into related compounds, such as, nitrides (TiN、VN、BN、AlN、CrN) from ammonia; carbides (SiC、TiC、VC、WC、W2C、ZrC MoC、NbC) from active carbon; or borides (TiB2、MoB2、DyB4、ErB4、YB4、LaB6、CeB6、SmB6、EuB6) from amorphous boron. A self-made temperature-testing instrument is used to observe the reaction inside the autoclave. We found that, when the reaction happened at~150℃, the inner system will experience a temperature shock from 150℃to a temperature above 800℃. Then, it will cool to 200℃within several seconds. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200820276 [page] => 118 [title_cn] => 添加剂辅助合成硼化物、碳化物、氮化物纳米材料 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => 山东大学博士学位论文 1.董万堂,董绍俊译,无机固态反应[M].北京科学出版社,1995. 2. 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N.Using, Synthesis of inorganic material,2nd ed [M], Wiley-VCH,2004. 26. A. Filimonor, N. I. Kidin, High-temperature combusion synthesis:generation of electromagnetic radiation and the effect of external electromagnetic fields [J], Combus. Explos. Shock,2005,41,639-656. 27. G. Edward, R. B. Kaner, Rapid solid-state synthesis of refractory nitrides [J], Inorg. Chem.,1994,33,5693-5700. 28. G. Edward, R. B. Kaner. Synthesis of refractory ceramics via rapid metathesis reactions between solid-state precursors [J], Chem. Mater.,1996,8,333-343 29. M. Panda, R. Seshadri, Preparation of PbZrO3/ASO4 Composites (A=Ca, Sr,Ba) and PbZrO3 by Metathetic Reactions in the Solid State:Metathetic Exchange of Divalent Species [J], Chem. Mater.,2003,15,1554-1559. 30. G. Tammann, Chemische reaktionen in pulverformigen gemengen zweier cristallarten [J], ZAnorg Chem,1925,149,21-98. [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 无机化学 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [钱逸泰]山东大学;中国科学技术大学 [issue] => [email] => amian196@126.com [datebase] => [degree] => 博士 [name_tutor1] => 钱逸泰 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 70301 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => qian yi tai [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => yang li shan [job_no] => [volume_label] => 48326 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 添加剂;;高压釜;;固相合成;;纳米材料 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 0531-88364543 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 杨立山 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => 山东大学;中国科学技术大学 [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => 博士 [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => 化学与化工学院 [title_en] => Additive-Assisted Synthesis of Boride, Carbide, and Nitride Nanomaterials [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => additives, autoclave, solid-state synthesis, nanomaterials [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => TB383.1 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [jl_country] => 中国 [jl_keyword_en] => autoclave,solidstatesynthesis,additives,nanomaterials [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 6a9f0ddbec40e4a2b6b1460e64aaa0922125356060 [hints] => 3 [id] => uqtr32YBFjIhTVEbVJcv [tags] => 0 ) [16] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 当今,医疗费用的持续上涨已成为全世界人民关心的一个问题,并引起各国政府的关注。医疗费用的超快速增长成为世界各国共同面对的难题。保持医疗费用合理增长,使卫生事业与社会经济协调发展,已成为世界上发达国家与发展中国家的共同目标。我国现阶段正在推行的医疗体制改革的主要目的就是控制过高的医疗费用,调节卫生资源,更好地保障全体社会成员。本研究选择的医院是山东省规模最大、医疗技术力量最雄厚的综合性医院,接诊的大多数是急危重症和疑难杂症患者,患者来自全国各地。 研究目的: 通过分析山东省某三甲医院冠心病患者住院费用的数据,了解住院费用的分布情况、探讨住院费用的影响因素,探索建立合理控制费用的有效途径,为控制医疗费用的过快增长提供可靠依据。 材料与方法: 本研究收集山东省某三级甲等医院2004年1月1日至2009年10月31日期间10632例主要诊断为冠心病的出院病例,通过该院计算机网络中心,以病案首页的基本信息为依据,调查病人的基本情况、疾病的负担形式、病人住院期间的信息、住院费用及构成情况为依据,所有资料在Excel中建立数据库及校对,用SPSS16.0统计软件对单病种数据进行描述性分析、利用非参秩和检验对影响因素进行单因素分析、利用多元逐步回归方法对影响因素进行多因素分析,探讨各因素对冠心病住院费用的影响及控制对策。 结果: 本研究的结果较为丰富,主要包括:1)总的来看,病人住院费用构成中以治疗费用所占比重最大,为47.4%—61.2%,其次为药费,为26.2%—39.5%不等;治疗费和药费占了总住院费用的大部分,均在85%以上。2)冠心病住院病人中,以55-80岁年龄段的人数最多。3)冠心病病人住院天数在10—19天者最多,占住院病人总数的46.9%。4)冠心病病人中男性所占比重很大,占65%左右。5)从病人职业分布情况来看,非农户产业工人所占比重最大,为23.5%,其次是机关、企事业单位管理者,为22.3%,第三是专业技术人员,占16.3%,以上三者占了住院病人总数的62.1%。6)冠心病人数及日均住院费用从2004年-2009年不断升高。7)通过单因素和多因素分析结果显示,影响住院费用的因素是多方面的,包括出院年、性别、是否转科、住院天数、入院情况、出院情况、是否介入、输血、负担方式、职业、年龄、药物过敏、日均住院费用。其中日均住院费用、住院天数、是否输血、负担方式、是否介入治疗、是否转科是影响住院费用的主要因素。 结论与建议: 结论:1)住院费用中,治疗费和药费所占比重过高,应引起相关部门的注意。2)冠心病住院人群中以中老年人数最多,有年轻化的趋势。3)冠心病住院天数较长,住院天数是影响住院费用的主要因素。4)男性应更加注意预防冠心病的发生。5)城镇工人是冠心病住院病人构成中发病的主要人群,应注意加强对这一部分人的健康教育。6)冠心病病人不断增多,住院费用不断升高,应引起社会的注意,减少冠心病的发生,提高医疗服务水平,降低住院费用。7)日均住院费用、住院天数、是否输血、负担方式、是否介入治疗、是否转科是影响住院费用的主要因素。 建议:1.增加政府财政投入,健全社区卫生服务体系。2.降低日均住院费用,缩短住院天数,控制医疗费用增长。3.加强医疗体制改革,完善医疗保健制度。4.减少不必要的医疗服务,降低住院费用。5.合理用药,调整药品费用结构。6.借鉴国外经验改变医疗费用支付形式。7.树立良好的医德医风,规范医疗行为。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011227689.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-16 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 流行病与卫生统计学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Nowadays, excessive increase in medical expenses turns out to be an issue of people throughout the world, and cause the attention of many countries' governments. Excessive increase in medical expenses become the confront problems all over the world. Keeping the medical costs reasonably growing and coordinated development of health career and economy have become the shared goals both in developed countries and developing countries. The present medical system in our country aims to control high medical costs, adjust health resources and protect all the society memebers. The focus hospital is the largest, most comprehensive hospital in Shandong province which patients who have the serious diseases come from all over the china. Research Objectives The research aims to set up a reliable way of controlling the rapid increase of the medical expenses by analysising the hospitalization expense data of coronary heart disease in the aiming hospital, understanding the distribution of hospitalization expenses and discussing the influence factors of hospitalization expenses. To explore the effective way of establishing a reasonable hospitalization expenses system. Materials and Methods The study collected 10632 cases of Coronary Heart Disease from January 1, 2004 to October 31,2009 in the hospital which is third-grade class-A hospital in Shandong Province. The data of the patients, including base situation, disease burden forms, patient's hospitalization information, expenses and constitution,inputing those data to the hospital computer center, using the basic information on the first page of case. All the information is established and checked in Excel, using the SPSS 16.0 statistical software to get descriptive information of single disease, using nonparameter order test to analysis the single infector, and using multivariate stepwise regression method to analysis the factors by Factors Analysis System, to discuss the influence factors of Coronary Heart Disease and the controlling measures.of its hospitalization expenses. Results The results of this study are abundant. The main results are as follows: 1) Generally, the biggest cost in the patients' cost list is treatment costs, it's 47.4%-61.2%, secondly is medicine costs, it's 26.2%-39.5%, the treatment and medicine costs account for the most part of total expenses, all above 85%. 2) The patients of Coronary Heart Disease whose age are between 55 and 80 are the biggest team. 3) The patients of Coronary Heart Disease who stay in hospital between 10 and 19 days are the biggest team; it has a percent of 46.9%. 4) The male patients of Coronary Heart Disease have a big part. It's about 65%. 5) Concluding from the patient's vocational distribution situation, the proportion of farmer workers is 23.5%, which is the largest, followed by organs, enterprises and institutions, which proportion is 22.3%. The third is professionals, accounting for 16.3%, and the three groups above accounts for 62.1% of total number of patients. 6) The number of patients and the average daily cost are increasing from 2004 to 2009. 7) The single factor and multi-factor analysis show that the impacts of hospitalization fees are extensive, including years, sex, age, whether to switch departments, the length of hospitalization days, entering hospital condition, leaving hospital condition, blood transfusion, identity types, occupation, drug allergy and average daily hospital bills, hospital infection. Among them, average daily expenses, the length of hospitalization days, blood transfusion, form of payment, the intervention treatment, whether to switch departments are the main factors affecting hospital expenses. Conclusions and Recommendations: Conclusions:1)In the cost of hospitalization, the proportion of treatment costs and medicine cost are too much, should attract the attention of the relevant departments.2) Coronary heart disease is the highest number in the elderly patient population, and incidence trends to a younger age.3) Length of hospital stay in coronary heart disease is much longer, length of hospital stay is the main factors in affecting the cost of hospitalization.4) Men should pay more attention to prevention of coronary heart disease.5) Urban workers are the main groups of coronary heart disease,We should pay more attention to strengthening the health education for this part of population.6) The increasing number of patients with coronary heart disease, and hospitalization costs continue to rise,those things should attract the attention of society to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, improve medical services and reduce hospitalization costs.7) The average daily hospital costs, length of hospitalization stay, whether the blood transfusion, form of payment, weather intervention treatment, whether to switch departments are the main factors in affecting the cost of hospitalization. Recommendations:1. Increasing government investment, improving community health service system.2. Reducing the average daily hospital costs, shortening hospital stay, controling medical cost increases.3. To strengthen the medical system, improve the health care system.4. To reduce unnecessary medical services, reducing hospital costs.5. To strengthen rational drug use, adjusting the structure of drug costs. 6. Learning from foreign experience, changing the form of payment for medical expenses.7. Set a good medical ethics, standardizing medical care behavior. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => [page] => 70 [title_cn] => 山东省某三级甲等医院冠心病患者住院费用及影响因素分析 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => [1]王莉燕,卢祖洵.综合性医院大额住院医疗费用分析[J].医学与社会.2005,18(10):55-58. [2]Wrorld Health Organization. The Wrorld Health Report 2000:Health Systems Improving Perfomance. Primed in France. [3]Naoko Muramastu Riehard TCam Pbell. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [刘冬梅] [issue] => [email] => [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 刘冬梅 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100401 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => [job_no] => [volume_label] => 50285 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 冠心病;;住院费用;;影响因素 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 栗超 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => [department_tutor1] => [reference_No] => [publication_cn] => [cite_scopus] => [special_is] => [student_type] => [institution_first] => [tag] => 20 [publication_en] => [conference_data] => [legal_status] => [open_time] => [agency] => [isbn_10] => [hx_id] => 0 [province] => [numerical_index] => [meet_code] => 10422 [school_stu] => [title_en] => Analysis on Hospitalization Expenses and Influence Factors of Coronary Heart Disease Patients in a Third-grade Class-A Hospital in Shandong Province [wos_sub] => [source_type] => 353 [birthday] => [keyword_en] => [pub_date] => [pages] => [fund_amount] => [positional_titles] => [doi] => [classification_No] => R197.3 [issn] => [institution_name] => 山东大学 [uri] => [responsibility] => [orcID] => [grant_bulletin_No] => [jl_language] => 中文 [author_test] => Array ( ) [sys_author_id_arr] => [batch2] => 5 [sys_jg_type] => 0 [batch] => 0 [jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 住院费用,影响因素,冠心病 [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [hints] => 4 [id] => iatr32YBFjIhTVEbB5Cs [tags] => 0 ) [17] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 目的:因各种原因造成的面部先、后天软组织缺损凹陷,给患者带来很大的生理上、心理上的影响,一般都有很强的求治愿望。解决这种面部软组织的缺损,关键是选择一种合适的材料进行组织充填。传统的皮瓣法对供区创伤大,人工材料的异物反应和不安全性,使其均不能作为治疗面部凹陷缺损的最理想方法。上世纪80年代初,自体脂肪颗粒移植的方法开始用于治疗软组织缺损,移植后脂肪的成活率不稳定仍是这项技术的核心问题,根据已有的报道和回顾几年来完成的利用自体脂肪颗粒注射移植治疗面部凹陷病例对这种方法进行总结,探讨自体脂肪移植技术提取、纯化及移植注射等各个环节的操作要点,提高脂肪移植的成活率,改善面部凹陷畸形治疗的远期效果。 方法:自2007年6月至2010年10月,对不同原因所致的面部凹陷病例进行自体脂肪颗粒移植17例,男性7例,女性10例,年龄在16-56岁,面颊部凹陷6例,额部凹陷5例,颞部凹陷4例,半侧颜面萎缩2例,根据面部凹陷组织缺损部位、范围、程度不同分别一次注射填充1-20ml脂肪颗粒,注射治疗1-3次,随访3-36个月,观察指标有术后效果、并发症及患者的满意度评价。 结果:17例患者中6例经过1次注射,8例经过2次注射,3例经过3次注射填充,术后凹陷部位较前明显改善,随访期内未发现感染、硬结、皮下包块、囊肿或其他并发症,患者对治疗效果基本满意。 结论:1、自体脂肪颗粒注射移植是治疗面部凹陷畸形的一种有效的方法和手段。 2、自体脂肪颗粒注射移植具有无排斥反应、取材方便、无明显瘢痕、可重复进行等优点,且由于植入材料为自身脂肪,更易被患者从心理上所接受。 3、自体脂肪颗粒注射移植操作较为简单、安全,便于在基层医疗机构开展。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011223339.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-03-09 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-12 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 整形外科 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Objective This study is to observe and summarize the cilinical effect of repairing facial concave deformity with autologugous fat granule injected. Method The clinicaldata of the patients who have undergone autologugous fat granules injected transplant dating from June 2007 to October 2010 were collected.The operative technical data、complications、esthetical results and patient satisfactions were analyzed。 Results All of the 17 patients who have undergone autologugous fat granules injected transplant obtained satisfactory outcomes after 1-3 times fat injection.The follow-up for 3-36 months revealed that there was no infection, hard and firm mass, cyst or other complications. Conclusion 1、Autologugous fat granules injected transplant is effective for the t reatment of facial concave deformity. 2、Autologugous fat granules injected transplant has advantages in no rejection.drawing materials conveniently, smaller scar and repeatable operation.This technique is easier to be accepted psychologically. 3、In consideration of simple operation and relative safety, autologugous fat granules injected transplant is suitable for primary hospital. 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Plast Reconstr Surg,2005,115(3):853-859. 22 Lu F, Gao JH,Ogawa Ket al. Improvement ofthe Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Using VEGF-Transfected Adipose-Derived Stem Ceils叨.Plast Rcconstr Surg,2009,124(5):1437.1446. 23万里,张宝林.肝细胞生长因子(HGF)对脂肪移植存活的影响.中国现代药物应用,2009,3(10):32-33. 24王友彬,戚可名,赵敏,等.瘦素促进移植颗粒脂肪成活的实验研究[J].中华整形外科杂志,2004,20(5):366-368. 25 KOTARO YOSHIMURA.Adipose tissue and its progenitor cells:soft augmentation with cell-assisted lipotransfer [G].日本东京:第五届国际美容外科学会大会论文摘要汇编,2008:132 26李劫,高建华,鲁峰,等.脂肪组织来源干细胞提高游离脂肪移植存活率的研究[J].中华整形外科杂志,2009,25(2):129-133. 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[jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 面部凹陷,deformityoffacialdepression,脂肪颗粒,autologugoustransplantation,自体移植,fatgranule [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 58e2a7ce31a8df9cd56d28679c4c8fc0108160478 [hints] => 3 [id] => Latr32YBFjIhTVEbKpQF [tags] => 0 ) [18] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 目的:比较应用视可尼(shikani optical stylet)与普通喉镜在全麻气管插管时,对口唇、牙齿以及咽喉部组织的损伤程度,血流动力学的变化,插管成功率等方面的差别;比较困难气管插管病例应用视可尼和可视喉镜气管插管的成功率以及插管时间的差别。探讨视可尼喉镜在气管插管中的应用价值。 方法:本实验分为两部分:第一部分为视可尼与普通喉镜的对比试验;第二部分:为视可尼与可视喉镜在困难插管病例中插管成功率的对比试验。 第一部分: 材料与方法: 药品:咪达唑仑、芬太尼、维库溴铵、异丙酚、乳酸钠林格氏液机械与设备:舒科曼直接喉镜、视可尼、舒科曼可视喉镜、驼人全麻气管插管包研究对象:2010年8月到2011年2月于临沂市人民医院手术室实行非颌面头颈部气管插管全麻手术的患者。年龄18岁—65岁,ASAⅠ.Ⅱ级的择期手术患者。排除术前严重心血管系统疾病、口腔肿瘤、颈部巨大肿瘤或其他外伤等原因无法正常暴露颈部气管结构的患者120例。 分组:将研究对象提前随机分为两组:a组为普通喉镜组60例,b组为视可尼组喉镜组60例。 方法:所有研究对象常规术前禁饮食、常规术前用药;进入手术室后常规开放静脉通道、连接监护(血压、心电图、脉搏氧)、吸氧,待患者情绪稳定后常规麻醉诱导,行气管插管。所有病例由两位有三年以上临床麻醉工作经验,能熟练使用普通喉镜和视可尼的麻醉医生平均完成。 观察指标:插管完成时间Ta和Tb(从开始气管插管到气管插管到位);麻醉诱导前即时的血压MAP1a和心率HR1a;喉镜挑起会厌即时的血压MAP2a和心率HR2a;视可尼到达声门即时的血压MAP2b和心率HR2b;气管导管送入气管后即时血压MAP3a、MAP3b和心率HR3a、HR3b;插管后2分钟即时的血压MAP4a、MAP4b和心率HR4a、HR4b;记录喉镜片上带血、牙齿脱落或牙齿损伤松动及出血、口唇损伤和插管完成后用纤维支气管镜观察咽喉部损伤红肿出血的病例;记录普通直接喉镜尝试两次失败或无法成功完成气管插管的病例;记录视可尼3分钟内无法成功完成气管插管的病例;记录两者相互转换方法后成功或不能成功完成气管插管的病例;记录气管插管后咽喉部疼痛不适或声音嘶哑的病例。 结果:使用普通喉镜进行气管插管组一次成功50例,第二次尝试成功7例,失败3例;使用视可尼可视喉镜进行气管插管组一次成功55例,第二次尝试成功4例,失败1例,气管插管成功率b组明显高于a组(p<0.05)。出现口咽喉牙齿等组织损伤的情况普通喉镜组15例,视可尼可视喉镜组9例,组织损伤情况b组明显小于a组(p<0.05)。插管完成时间Ta明显长于Tb(p<0.05)。T2时间点、T3时间点、T4时间点时两组患者的心率血压变化没有差异(p>0.05)。结论:视可尼在气管插管完成时间、插管成功率以及对组织的损伤方面优于普通喉镜,在血流动力学的变化方面两者没有明显的差别,但在组织损伤的发生率上视可尼组明显低于普通直接喉镜组。 第二部分: 材料与方法: 药品:咪达唑仑、芬太尼、维库溴铵、异丙酚、乳酸钠林格氏液机械与设备:舒科曼直接喉镜、视可尼(shikani optical stylet)、舒科曼可视喉镜、驼人全麻气管插管包 研究对象:2010年8月到2011年2月于临沂市人民医院手术室择期行非颌面头颈部手术需气管插管全麻的患者。年龄18岁—65岁,ASAⅠ-Ⅱ级。排除术前严重心血管系统疾病、口腔肿瘤、颈部巨大肿瘤或其他外伤等原因无法正常暴露颈部气管结构的患者。 分组:麻醉诱导后使用普通麻醉喉镜无法暴露声门的患者30例,随机分为两组:a组为可视喉镜组15例,b组为视可尼组15例。观察指标:插管完成时间(从开始气管插管到气管插管到位);记录可视喉镜3分钟内尝试两次失败或无法成功完成气管插管的病例;记录视可尼3分钟内无法成功完成气管插管的病例;记录两者相互转换方法后成功或不能成功完成气管插管的病例。 结果:在普通喉镜无法完全暴露声门的情况下,a组(视可尼可视喉镜组)15例患者中成功13例,失败2例,b组(舒克曼可视喉镜组)15例患者中成功14例,失败1例。两组气管插管的成功率分别为86.67%和93.33%,有统计学差异(p<0.05)。 结论:可视喉镜较视可尼(shikani optical stylet)喉镜在声门暴露不满意的困难气管插管中气管插管成功率要高。视可尼(shikani optical stylet)是一种简便易行、损伤较小、成功率高的插管工具,并且在处理声门暴露困难的病例中也具有优势。可以作为一种常规的气管插管工具推广使用。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011226706.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-05-04 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-17 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 麻醉学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => Objective: To compare the intubation time, stimulus to the base of tongue and epiglottis, the hemodynamic responses, success rate exterted by Shikani Optical Style and direct laryngoscopes after induction of general anesthesia. To further identify target success rate intubation time using Shikani Optical Style and video laryngoscope when glottis, hypolarynx structure even epiglottis cann't be exposed. Then investigate the application value by Shikani Optical Style. Methods:The clinical trial was divided to two parts:one contrast test for Shikani Optical Style and direct laryngoscopes, the other for Shikani Optical Style and video laryngoscope in difficult tracheal intubation. Part1: Materials and methods: drug:midazolam fentanil propofol vecuronium lactated ringer's solution equipment:Shikani Optical Style, direct laryngoscopes, video laryngoscope, intubation packet produced by tuoren company. Study objects:the patients aged 18~65 year, ASAⅠ-Ⅱgroup scheduled for no head and neck selective operation and tracheal intubation in Linyi people's hospital of Shandong province. People with signs of significant cardiovascular, oral neoplasms, large mass of neck and anatomical texture confused as result of trauma. Group:According to the randomized design, all subjects were divided two groups: direct laryngoscopes(n=60) or Shikani Optical Style(n=60). All patients fasted overnight and were restricted from oral intake of clear fluid for two to three hours. They all were delivered premedication as usual. After patients entered the operating room, an intravenous (IV) cannula was inserted and noninvasive BP, HR, SPO2 were continuously monitored and inhaled 100% oxygen. Then midazolam 0.05mg/kg, fentanyl 2~3μg/kg, vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg and propofol 2-3 mg/kg were injected IV. The orotracheal intubation was started 2 min after vecuronium injection. All intubation procedures were performed by a three experienced anesthetist proficient in direct laryngoscopes and Shikani Optical Style. Variables measured:After the tracheal intubation was successfully accomplished, the tracheal tube was connected to the anesthesia breathing system for intermittent positive pressure ventilation, intubation time Ta,Tb(from starting to finishing).Systolic blood pressure and HR were recorded before induction(MAPla,HRla), epiglottis view with direct laryngoscopes(MAP2a,HR2a,),reach glottis with Shikani Optical Style(MAP2b,HR2b), tube get to tracheal (MAP3a,HR3a,MAP3b,HR3b),and the first 2 min after intubation(MAP4a,HR4a, MAP4b,HR4b).laryngopharyngeal bleeding, teeth droped and loose, oral lip injury, then examined laryngopharyngeal with fibrescopes. More than two attempt to achieve successful tracheal intubation using direct laryngoscopes, requiring>3min using Shikani Optical Style and changed the two way were record. In addition, throat discomfort and hoarseness were add. Result:50 cases were completed successfully for the first time and 7 cases were completed for the second time,3 case were failed when using direct larygoscopes.55 cases were completed successfully for the first time and 4 cases were completed for the second time,1 case were failed when using Shikani Optical Style. Successful rate were higher in group B than group A (p<0.05).The incidence rate for laryngopharyngeal injury and intubating time were lower in group B than group A (p<0.05). But the heart rate, blood pressure in both group at T1、T2、T3、T4 were not different (p>0.05). Conclusion: we found the Shikani Optical Style was better than the conventional direct laryngoscope with regard to the intubation time,successful rate and tissue injury,while both showed the similar the hemodynamic responses. Part 2: Materials and methods: drug:midazolam fentanil propofol vecuronium lactated ringer's solution equipment:Shikani Optical Style a, direct laryngoscopes and video laryngoscope intubation packet produced by tuoren company. Study objects:the patients aged 18~65 year, ASAⅠ-Ⅱgroup scheduled for no head and neck selective operation and tracheal intubation in Linyi people's hospital of Shandong province. People with signs of significant cardiovascular, oral neoplasms,large mass of neck and anatomical texture confused as result of trauma. Group:According to the randomized design, all subjects were divided two groups: video laryngoscope (N=15) or Shikani Optical Style(n=15). Variables measured:performed tracheal intubation, more than two attempt or requiring exceed 3min to achieve successful tracheal intubation by Shikani Optical Style were record. Meanwhile changing the two ways still not finished were incluced. Result:When glottis structure wasn't well display with direct larygoscopes,13 cases were accomplished successfully in Shikani Optical Style group, while 14 cases were accomplished in video laryngoscope group. The successful rate for both group was respectively 86.67%和93.33%. Conclusion: we conclude compared with video laryngoscope, Shikani Optical Style has no special advantages in completing intuabtion time and successful rate. This study suggests that the Shikani Optical Style is a slight injury, highly successful rate and learned very quickly.lt showed special advantages in dealing with difficult way especially glottis structure wasn't well display. The Shikani Optical Style would be a routine and useful in tracheal intubation. [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => L0960047 [page] => 40 [title_cn] => 视可尼喉镜、普通直接喉镜及可视喉镜在气管插管中的应用观察 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => 1. 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[series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 临床麻醉 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => [publication_type] => [fund_No] => [highly_article] => [cssci_No] => [cite_wos] => [author_jg] => [李克忠]山东大学第二医院麻醉科 [issue] => [email] => ziyaojiao@sina.com [datebase] => [degree] => 硕士 [name_tutor1] => 李克忠 [cauthor_back] => [begin_page] => [publisher] => [language] => 中文; [author_fn] => [country] => [pubmedID] => [author_in] => [check_3Y] => [subject_gb1] => 100217 [jcr_wos] => [wos_No] => [standard_in] => [cauthor] => [author_gro] => li ke zhong [scopus_No] => [bulletin_date] => [author_en] => jiao zi yao [job_no] => [volume_label] => 49864 [clc] => [abstract_type] => [fund_CSSCI] => [conference] => [keyword_cn] => 视可尼喉镜;;普通直接喉镜;;可视喉镜 [article_id] => [suppl] => [editor] => [thesis_au] => [conference_pro] => [email_c] => [author_first] => [conference_spo] => [volume] => [phone] => 13583921957 [publisher_ad] => [check_180] => [end_page] => [author_cn] => 焦紫耀 [researcherID] => [fund_ab] => 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[jl_keyword_cn_keyword_en] => 可视喉镜,视可尼喉镜,directlaryngoscope,普通直接喉镜,shikaniopticalstyle,videolaryngoscope [hb_type] => 2 [company_id] => 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 [author_id] => [sys_author_id] => [format_student_No_degree_title_cn] => 153a01904bff4de32b6cd650a9cff79a1280166516 [hints] => 4 [id] => BKtr32YBFjIhTVEbGJJJ [tags] => 0 ) [19] => Array ( [grant_bulletin_date] => [abstract_meeting] => [delivery_No] => [producer] => [ei_No] => [discipline_name] => [isbn] => [main_cword] => [abstract_cn] => 俄罗斯著名语言学家在他的专著中总结到:“心智问题产生于法国观念主义,形成于英美称名主义,最终完善于德国和俄罗斯的现实主义。”在当今俄中学术界“民族心智”这一概念出现得并不早,对这一问题的研究具有广阔的理论研究空间和重要的实践意义。 在俄中跨文化交际研究框架中,我们将心智理解为具体文化背景下的民族心理特点,它是特定民族在长期的自然环境与社会环境的制约与历史文化的积淀过程中形成的,并通过一定的生产和生活方式及各种文化产品得以表现。而人类文化、生产及生活方式都不可能脱离语言而存在。语言作为文化载体和人类交往的一种手段,必然具有社会性和民族性。它不可避免地保留有民族世界观、审美观和文化价值观的印记。 现阶段在国内(尤其是俄语学界)从语言角度对民族心智所进行的研究已经取得了一些成果。然而,大多数研究只停留在从语言词汇语义的角度分析民族心智的特点。作为表达事物概念的语义固然与该民族社会文化紧密相连,但是作为语言的重要组成部分的语法和修辞与民族社会文化之间有着与生俱来、紧密不可分的联系。因此本文欲独辟蹊径,试图以俄汉两种语言的语法和修辞为切入点来剖析俄汉两个民族的心智特点。 本文分六部分:绪论,第一、二、三、四章,结论。 在绪论部分,概述了民族心智现阶段的研究情况,介绍了本文的研究目的及理论和现实意义。 第一章里明确了民族心智的概念,阐述了民族心智与语言之间的关系,并解释了在语言的哪些层面上反映了民族心智的特点。民族心智作为该民族共同心理特点的总和,由世界观,价值观,审美观,思维方式等各要素构成。而语言作为人类交往的一种手段,必然会保留社会性和民族性的印记。这些印记体现在语言个各个构成要素中,如语音,语义,语法,修辞等。 第二章作为本文的承接章节,简述了中俄两民族心智的异同。中国和俄罗斯都是具有悠久历史的文化大国,都共同为人类文明发展做出过巨大的贡献。由于地理、历史、政治、经济、文化等各种因素,中俄民族形成了自己特有的民族性。这其中既有相似之处,亦有不同之处。本章重点归纳其差异之处,分别从思维方式,宗教信仰,时空观,民族性格以及审美观等方面展开叙述。 第三章具体阐述中俄两民族的心智差异在语言语法层面上的体现。本章分别从俄汉语的构词方式、词形变化、词序、句式等词法和句法层面阐述中俄两民族的思维方式差异、宗教信仰差异、时空观差异和性格差异。 第四章阐明了中俄两民族的心智差异在语言修辞层面上的体现。本章从语篇的行文和衔接中所采用的修辞方式为切入点来阐明中俄民族的审美差异和世界观差异。 结语对全文进行了总结,并指出了本文在新的历史条件下的国际交往中的现实意义。一方面,对于外语学习者来说,了解所学语言国家的民族心智是有必要的。这将帮助他们更加深入的理解语言组织的内部结构特点,以便更好的掌握该语言。另一方面,本文中所用的材料和结论有利于我们进一步了解俄汉两民族人民的生活和思想,并能够保证俄汉两民族的有效交际,促进两民族在不同领域的合作。 [keyword_plu] => [book_alias] => 1011224277.pdf [controlled_terms] => [complete_time] => 2011-04-11 00:00:00 [imf] => [publisher_city] => [uncontrolled_terms] => [conference_ad] => [subsection] => [cite_awos] => [imf_once] => [classification_pub] => [publication_iso ] => [oral_time] => 2011-05-27 00:00:00 [main_eword] => [awards_type] => [bulletin_No] => [publication_29] => [pub_year] => 2011 [eissn] => [dom_ranking] => [application_date] => [from_id] => 79 [profession_stu] => 俄语语言文学 [cauthor_ad] => [cscd_No] => [abstract_en] => [document_No] => [institution_type] => [imf_5] => [attachment_text] => [top_article] => [student_No] => 200810886 [page] => 72 [title_cn] => 从俄汉语的语法和修辞层面浅析俄汉民族心智 [article_dt] => [name_editor] => [reference] => ①曹悦,“中西整体思维与个体思维引起的英汉语言研究”,外语研究,2007年第8期,第43-44页。 ①汪成慧,“从宗教文化看俄汉民族的语言差异”,攀枝花学院学报,第26卷第4期,2009年8月,第75页。 ①范莹,“水之美--俄、汉民族文化中关于水意象的审美观”,四川外语学院学报,2003年7月,第19卷第4期。 ①潘文国,“汉英语对比纲要”,北京:北京语言文化大学出版社,1997年,第369-370页。 ①张会森,“俄汉语对比研究”,上海:上海外语教育出版社,2004年,第127-131页。 ①丛亚平、纪联华, “国际商贸俄语教程”,北京:外语教学与研究出版社,2007年, 第239页。 ①赵敏善,“俄汉语对比研究”,上海:上海译文出版社,1994年,第132-139页。 ①汪成慧,“从宗教文化看俄汉民族的语言差异”,攀枝花学院学报,26卷第4期,2009年8月,第5页。 ①汪成慧,“从宗教文化看俄汉民族的语言差异”,攀枝花学院学报,第26卷第4期,2009年8月,第76页。 ①潘文国,“汉英语对比纲要”,北京:北京语言文化大学出版社,1997年,第198-209页。 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《从宗教文化看俄汉民族的语言差异》,攀枝花学院学报,第26卷第4期,2009年8月。 18.马文君, 《汉字造字法中的哲学》,中学政治教学参考,2004年第10期。 19.高原, 《简谈俄汉语词序对比》,理论观察,2006年10月。 20.马晓华, 《俄汉词汇民族文化色彩》,吉林省教育学院学报,第25卷,2009年01期。 21.黄怡红、吴淑华, 《浅谈中俄文化差异与翻译》,世纪桥,2010年第15期。 22.曹悦, 《中西整体思维与个体思维引起的英汉语言研究》,外语研究,2007年第8期。 23.刘天贤, 《英俄汉三种语言构词法对比》,太原理工大学学报,第26卷第3期,2008年9月。 24.李逸津,《中国传统美学观念在俄罗斯白银时代审美文化中的体现》,东方丛刊,2007年1月。 25.范莹,《水之美--俄、汉民族文化中关于水意象的审美观》,四川外语学院学报,2003年7月。 26.高原、张志军, 《俄汉存在句存在处所词对比分析》,2009年第10期。 27.徐宁, 《俄汉被动结构对比浅析》,牡丹江教育学院学报,2009年第3期。 28.ЛepMOHTOB M.Ю当代英雄,上海:上海译文出版社,1981年。 1. http://www.rusactors.ru/ 2. http://ru-china.net/ 3. http://www.orthodox.cn/index_ru.html 4. http://www.kinoros.ru/db/index.do 5. http://www.sharereactor.ru/ 6. http://kinoros.ru/db/index.do 7. http://www.china-lesha.cn/read.php?tid=9332 8. http://www.51test.net/russian/zn/ 9.http://ru. wikipedia.org/ 10.http://revolution.allbest.ru/ #12 #12 #12 #12 #12 #12 #12 #12 #12 #12 [series] => [fund_type] => [create_time] => [research_area] => 俄罗斯语言文化 [sponsor] => [awards_title ] => 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