标题：Atsttrin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway
作者：Lian Liu;Yuan Qu;Yi Liu;Hua Zhao;He-Cheng Ma;Ahmed Fayyaz Noor;Chang-Jiao Ji;Lin Nie;Meng Si;Lei Cheng
作者机构：[Lian Liu]Department of Orthopedics,Qilu Hospital of Shandong University,Jinan,Shandong Province,China.;[Lian Liu]Department of Orthopedics,Qilu Child 更多
通讯作者：Si, M;Cheng, L
通讯作者地址：[Si, M; Cheng, L]Shandong Univ, Qilu Hosp, Dept Orthoped, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China.
摘要：Progranulin is closely related to neuronal survival in a neuroinflammatory mouse model and attenuates inflammatory reactions. Atsttrin is an engineered protein composed of three progranulin fragments and has been shown to have an effect similar to that of progranulin. Atsttrin has anti-inflammatory actions in multiple arthritis mouse models, and it protects against further arthritis development. However, whether Atsttrin has a role in neuroinflammation remains to be elucidated. In this study, we produced a neuroinflammatory mouse model by intracerebroventricular injection of 1 μL lipopolysaccharide(10 μg/μL). Atsttrin(2.5 mg/kg) was administered via intraperitoneal injection every 3 days over a period of 7 days before intracerebroventricular injection of 1 μL lipopolysaccharide(10 μg/μL). In addition, astrocyte cultures were treated with 0, 100 or 300 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide, with 200 ng/mL Atsttrin simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine the protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators and to assess activation of the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Progranulin expression in the brain of wild-type mice and in astrocyte cultures was increased after lipopolysaccharide administration. The protein and mRNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased in the brain of progranulin knockout mice after lipopolysaccharide administration. Atsttrin treatment reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in the protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, matrix metalloproteinase-3 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the brain of progranulin knockout mice. Atsttrin also reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase 3 mRNA in lipopolysaccharide-treated astrocytes in vitro, and decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α