标题：Mountain tunnel under earthquake force: A review of possible causes of damages and restoration methods
作者：Zhang, Xuepeng; Jiang, Yujing; Maegawa, Kazuhiko
作者机构：[Zhang, Xuepeng; Jiang, Yujing] Shandong Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Min Disaster Prevent & Control Cofo, Qingdao 266590, Peoples R China.; [Z 更多
通讯作者地址：Jiang, YJ (corresponding author), Shandong Univ Sci & Technol, State Key Lab Min Disaster Prevent & Control Cofo, Qingdao 266590, Peoples R China.; Ji 更多
来源：JOURNAL OF ROCK MECHANICS AND GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
关键词：Mountain tunnel; Seismic damage; Influence factor; Restoration method
摘要：Accurate seismic assessment and proper aseismic design of underground structures require a comprehensive understanding of seismic performance and response of underground structures under earthquake force. In order to understand the seismic behavior of tunnels during an earthquake, a wide collection of case histories has been reviewed from the available literature with respect to damage classification, to discuss the possible causes of damage, such as earthquake parameters, structural form and geological conditions. In addition, a case of Tawarayama tunnel subjected to the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake is studied. Discussion on the possible influence factors aims at improving the performance-based aseismic design of tunnels. Finally, restoration design criterion and methods are presented taking Tawarayama tunnel as an example. (C) 2020 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).