标题： PGRN promotes lymphangiogenesis through VEGF-C and is an independent risk factor in human esophageal cancers.
作者： Li, Guanhua; Dong, Taotao; Yang, Dong; Gao, Aiqin; Luo, Judong; Yang, Hongyan; Wang, Linlin
作者机构：[ Li, Guanhua; Li G] Department of Respiratory, Jinan Central Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250013, PR China.;[ Dong, Ta 更多
来源： Human pathology
摘要： Lymph node metastasis is one of the most important predictor of the prognosis for esophageal cancer (EC) patients. Yet, the mechanism underlying the lymph node metastasis is largely unknown. Progranulin (PGRN) is shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers and could promote the angiogenesis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells in previous studies. However, the expression status of PGRN and its effects on the lymphangiogenesis in EC is largely unclear. In this study, we show for the first time that PGRN is expressed in EC tissue samples and cell lines and could promote the expression of VEGF-C in vitro, a well-known lymphangiogenesis inducer, through the putative signaling transducers p-ERK and p-AKT. Besides, increased levels of PGRN are correlated with lymph node metastasis, high levels of lymph microvessel density (LMVD), and lymph vessel space invasion (LVSI) in tissue samples of EC patients. In addition, Cox proportional risk model shows that patients with high levels of PGRN would have 2 fold increases in 5year mortality compared with patients with low levels of PGRN. Finally, we establish a clinical useful nomogram to predict the possibility of mortality for individual EC patients. In conclusion, PGRN may play an important role in the lymphangiogenesis through activation of VEGF-C in the EC patients.