标题：Propagation properties of foreshock cavitons: Cluster observations
作者：Wang, MengMeng; Yao, ShuTao; Shi, QuanQi; Zhang, Hui; Tian, AnMin; Degeling, Alexander William; Zhang, Shuai; Guo, RuiLong; Sun, WeiJi 更多 作者机构：[Wang, MengMeng; Yao, ShuTao; Shi, QuanQi; Tian, AnMin; Degeling, Alexander William; Zhang, Shuai; Bai, ShiChen; Shen, XiaoChen; Zhu, XiaoQiong] Shand 更多
通讯作者：Shi, QuanQi;Shi, QQ
通讯作者地址：[Shi, QQ]Shandong Univ, Sch Space Sci & Phys, Weihai 264209, Peoples R China.
来源：SCIENCE CHINA-TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES
关键词：foreshock transient phenomena; cavitons; nonlinear evolution of ULF; waves; propagation and evolution properties of structures; multipoint; spacecraft methods
摘要：Foreshock cavitons are transient phenomena observed in the terrestrial foreshock region. They are characterized by a simultaneous depression of magnetic field magnitude and plasma density, which are bounded with enhancements of these two parameters and surrounded by ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. Previous studies focused on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, solar wind (SW) conditions, and the growth of the foreshock waves related to the generation of foreshock cavitons. Previously, a multipoint spacecraft analysis method using Cluster data was applied to analyze only two foreshock cavitons, and this method did not consider uncertainties. In this study, multipoint spacecraft analysis methods, including the timing method, the minimum directional derivative (MDD) method, and the spatiotemporal difference (STD) method are applied to determine the velocity in both spacecraft and solar wind frames. The propagation properties show good agreement with previous results from simulations and observations that most cavitons move sunward in the solar wind frame, with the velocities larger than the Alfven speed. The propagation properties of foreshock cavitons support the formation mechanism of cavitons in previous simulations, which suggested that cavitons are formed due to the nonlinear evolution of compressive ULF waves. We find that there is clear decreasing trend between the size of cavitons and their velocity in the solar wind frame. In addition, the timing method considering errors has been applied to study the evolution properties by comparing the velocities with errors of the leading and trailing edges, and we identify three stable cavitons and one contracting caviton, which has not been studied before. Most cavitons should remain stable when they travel toward the Earth's bow shock. The relationship between the size of foreshock cavitons and their distance from the bow shock is also discussed.