标题：Normal development of costal element ossification centers of sacral vertebrae in the fetal spine: a postmortem magnetic resonance imaging study
作者：Jian, Nan; Lin, Nan; Tian, Mi-Mi; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Guan; Zhao, Hui; Xiao, Lian-Xiang; Liang, Wen-Jia; Lin, Xiang-Tao
作者机构：[Jian, Nan; Tian, Mi-Mi; Zhang, Shuai; Lin, Xiang-Tao] Shandong Univ, Sch Med, 44 West Wenhua Rd, Jinan 250012, Shandong, Peoples R China.; [Jian, N 更多
通讯作者：Lin, XT;Lin, XT
通讯作者地址：[Lin, XT]Shandong Univ, Sch Med, 44 West Wenhua Rd, Jinan 250012, Shandong, Peoples R China;[Lin, XT]Shandong Univ, Dept Radiol, Shandong Prov Hosp, 3 更多
关键词：Fetal spine; Costal element ossification center; Sacrum
摘要：PurposeThis postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the fetal spine aimed to describe the timing of appearance, shape, volume, and relative positions of the S1-S3 costal element ossification centers (CEOCs).MethodsWe obtained sagittal 3D dual-echo steady-state with water excitation T2 images of the entire spine in 71 fetuses (gestational ages (GAs), 17-42weeks). Computed tomography and histological examinations were performed on two fetal specimens (GAs, 21 and 30weeks) to validate the MR images. The presence/absence of each sacral CEOC was recorded according to the GA. CEOC volume was measured. We analyzed the CEOC position relative to the vertebral column and ilium.ResultsThe S1, S2, andS3 CEOCs first appeared at 23, 22, and 29weeks, respectively. The S1 and S2 CEOCs could be detected in all fetuses with GAs of 30weeks and 35weeks, respectively, while the S3 CEOCs were variably present until term. The percentages of detection of the S1 and S2 CEOCs were significantly greater than that of the S3 CEOCs at each GA. At S1 and S2, the CEOC volume increased exponentially with GA. The relative positions of the S1 and S2 CEOCs, but not the S3 CEOCs, significantly correlated with GA (P<0.001).ConclusionWe have described the timeline of appearance as well as the volume and position of the S1-S3 CEOCs in the fetal spine on postmortem MRI according to GA.