标题：Moving towards improved vaccines for Toxoplasma gondii
作者：Li, Yawen; Zhou, Huaiyu
作者机构：[Li, Yawen; Zhou, Huaiyu] Shandong Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Pathogen Biol, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China.
通讯作者地址：[Zhou, HY]Shandong Univ, Sch Basic Med Sci, Dept Pathogen Biol, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China.
来源：EXPERT OPINION ON BIOLOGICAL THERAPY
关键词：Toxoplasma gondii; vaccine; novel vaccine; immunization; adjuvant
摘要：Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasitic protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals and humans, resulting in threats to public health and economic losses. Despite continuous research efforts, there are still very few effective strategies against toxoplasmosis. In the past few years, numerous vaccination experiments have been performed to control T. gondii infection.Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the development of T. gondii vaccines with proper adjuvants, ranging from live or live-attenuated vaccines to protein vaccines, DNA vaccines, epitope vaccines and novel vaccines. They also highlight the challenges involved in the development of T. gondii vaccines, including specific impediments and shortcomings.Expert opinion: Moving towards the development of effective vaccines against T. gondii is not only a tedious mission but also a difficult challenge. Future studies should consider new approaches and strategies for vaccine development, particularly novel vaccines and genetic adjuvants, as well as optimizing immunization protocols and evaluation criteria.