标题：Comparison of directed and weighted co-occurrence networks of six languages
作者：Gao, Yuyang; Liang, Wei; Shi, Yuming; Huang, Qiuling
作者机构：[Gao, Yuyang] Shandong Univ, Sch Comp Sci & Technol, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.; [Liang, Wei] Henan Polytech, Sch Math & Informat Sci, 更多
通讯作者地址：[Shi, YM]Shandong Univ, Sch Math, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
来源：PHYSICA A-STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
关键词：Language; Co-occurrence network; Small-world network; Scale-free network
摘要：To study commonalities and differences among different languages, we select 100 reports from the documents of the United Nations, each of which was written in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, separately. Based on these corpora, we construct 6 weighted and directed word co-occurrence networks. Besides all the networks exhibit scale-free and small-world features, we find several new non-trivial results, including connections among English words are denser, and the expression of English language is more flexible and powerful; the connection way among Spanish words is more stringent and this indicates that the Spanish grammar is more rigorous; values of many statistical parameters of the French and Spanish networks are very approximate and this shows that these two languages share many commonalities; Arabic and Russian words have many varieties, which result in rich types of words and a sparse connection among words; connections among Chinese words obey a more uniform distribution, and one inclines to use the least number of Chinese words to express the same complex information as those in other five languages. This shows that the expression of Chinese language is quite concise. In addition, several topics worth further investigating by the complex network approach have been observed in this study. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.