标题：Is a Benevolent Man Bound to be Courageous or Wise: Wang Fuzhi's Interpretation of the Three Universal Virtues-Benevolence, Courage and Wisdom
作者机构：[Tan, Mingran] Shandong Univ, Sch Philosophy & Social Dev, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China.
通讯作者地址：[Tan, MR]Shandong Univ, Sch Philosophy & Social Dev, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China.
来源：UNIVERSITAS-MONTHLY REVIEW OF PHILOSOPHY AND CULTURE
关键词：Wisdom; Benevolence; Courage; Capacity/liang
摘要：Since Confucius proposed "a benevolent man is bound to be courageous," Zhu Xi went on to insist that benevolence would subsume righteousness, ritual propriety and wisdom under itself, and Yu Yingshi claims that benevolence can subsume wisdom and courage. However, these assumptions had been refuted or corrected by Wang Fuzhi at the Ming-Qing transition. Wang Fuzhi insisted benevolence, wisdom and courage stand shoulder to shoulder one another, saying, "Wisdom is the function of heart-mind; benevolence is the function of human nature and courage is the function of qi/vital force of human body." Wang admitted that benevolence and righteousness were crucial to the development of wisdom and courage, but he also emphasized the inalienable role of wisdom and courage in the achievement of humanity. Hence, on the one hand, he suggested disciplining wisdom with righteousness so as to get rid of the negative influence of blood on wisdom; and he cultivated the great courage by abiding by the Way and righteousness. On the other hand, he indicated that wisdom helped a person avoid inhumane behaviors and do benevolent deeds prudently and earnestly. Courage enabled a person to carry out benevolence and righteousness determinedly at the moment of overwhelming scare, sorrow and uncertainty. He saw courage as a sense of duty and daring judgment, transcending any calculation and deliberation. He distinguished animal courage from the courage generated by the practice of the Way and righteousness, and rejected to subsume courage under either benevolence or wisdom. Ontologically speaking, this is because Wang Fuzhi realized the independence of vital force/qi to principle/li, and their mutual support each other, and did not endorse Zhu Xi's antithetical standpoint. As a result, Wang did not follow Zhu Xi to see courage and desire as burdens to moral cultivation, but believed that they could help the completion of humanity and righteousness. In this way, it can be said Wang advanced Confucian moral cultivation to a new milestone.