标题：Novel Two-Component System MacRS Is a Pleiotropic Regulator That Controls Multiple Morphogenic Membrane Protein Genes in Streptomyces coelicolor
作者：Liu, Meng; Zhang, Peipei; Zhu, Yanping; Lu, Ting; Wang, Yemin; Cao, Guangxiang; Shi, Mei; Chen, Xiu-lan; Tao, Meifeng; Pang, Xiuhua
作者机构：[Liu, Meng; Zhang, Peipei; Zhu, Yanping; Lu, Ting; Shi, Mei; Chen, Xiu-lan; Pang, Xiuhua] Shandong Univ, Sch Life Sci, State Key Lab Microbial Technol 更多
通讯作者：Pang, Xiuhua;Pang, XH
通讯作者地址：[Pang, XH]Shandong Univ, Sch Life Sci, State Key Lab Microbial Technol, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China.
来源：APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
关键词：MacRS; Streptomyces coelicolor; membrane protein; two-component system
摘要：As with most annotated two-component systems (TCSs) of Streptomyces coelicolor, the function of TCS SCO2120/2121 was unknown. Based on our findings, we have designated this TCS MacRS, for morphogenesis and actinorhodin regulator/sensor. Our study indicated that either single or double mutation of MacRS largely blocked production of actinorhodin but enhanced formation of aerial mycelium. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing, using an S. coelicolor strain expressing MacR-Flag fusion protein, identified in vivo targets of MacR, and DNase I footprinting of these targets revealed a consensus sequence for MacR binding, TGAGTACnnGTACTCA, containing two 7-bp inverted repeats. A genome-wide search revealed sites identical or highly similar to this consensus sequence upstream of six genes encoding putative membrane proteins or lipoproteins. These predicted sites were confirmed as MacR binding sites by DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays in vitro and by ChIP-quantitative PCR in vivo, and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that MacR significantly impacts expression of these target genes. Disruption of three of these genes, SCO6728, SCO4924, and sco4011, markedly accelerated aerial mycelium formation, indicating that their gene products are novel morphogenic factors. Two-hybrid assays indicated that these three proteins, which we have named morphogenic membrane protein A (MmpA; SCO6728), MmpB (SCO4924), and MmpC (SCO4011), interact with one another and with the putative membrane protein and MacR target SCO4225. Notably, SAV6081/82 and SVEN1780/81, homologs of MacRS TCS from S. avermitilis and S. venezuelae, respectively, can substitute for MacRS, indicating functional conservation. Our findings reveal a role for MacRS in cellular morphogenesis and secondary metabolism in Streptomyces.; IMPORTANCE TCSs help bacteria adapt to environmental stresses by altering gene expression. However, the roles and corresponding regulatory mechanisms of most TCSs in the Streptomyces model strain S. coelicolor are unknown. We investigated the previously uncharacterized MacRS TCS and identified the core DNA recognition sequence, two seven-nucleotide inverted repeats, for the DNA-binding protein MacR. We further found that MacR directly controls a group of membrane proteins, including MmpA-C, which are novel morphogenic factors that delay formation of aerial mycelium. We also discovered that these membrane proteins interact with one another and that other Streptomyces species have conserved MacRS homologs. Our findings suggest a conserved role for MacRS in morphogenesis and/or other membrane-associated activities. Additionally, our study showed that MacRS impacts, albeit indirectly, the production of the signature metabolite actinorhodin, further suggesting that MacRS and its homologs function as novel pleiotropic regulatory systems in Streptomyces.