标题：Energy and carbon coupled water footprint analysis for Kraft wood pulp paper production
作者：Ma, Xiaotian; Shen, Xiaoxu; Qi, Congcong; Ye, Liping; Yang, Donglu; Hong, Jinglan
作者机构：[Ma, Xiaotian; Shen, Xiaoxu; Qi, Congcong; Ye, Liping; Yang, Donglu; Hong, Jinglan] Shandong Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Shandong Prov Key Lab Wate 更多
通讯作者：Hong, Jinglan;Hong, JL
通讯作者地址：[Hong, JL]Shandong Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Shandong Prov Key Lab Water Pollut Control & Reso, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
来源：RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS
关键词：Pulp and paper; Energy consumption and recovery; Carbon emissions; Water; footprint; Wastewater treatment
摘要：Although paper production demonstrates high energy and water sensitivity in their life cycles, only a few systematic analyses have focused on these issues. Therefore, an energy and carbon coupled water footprint analysis of five types of Kraft wood pulp-based paper (i.e., specialty-, art-, household-, light coated-, and tissue paper) is conducted in this study to help improve the environmental performance of the paper industry. All investigations are conducted with an impact-oriented approach based on ISO standards. Results show that elemental-chlorine-free bleaching is more environmentally friendly than chlorination-alkaline extraction-hypochlorite bleaching, specifically for global warming, aquatic eutrophication, and human health (i.e., carcinogens and non-carcinogens). Gray water footprint along whole life cycles of each product is approximately twice of blue water footprint. Direct processes contribute approximately 50% to water scarcity, while their impact on aquatic eutrophication ranges from 0.002% to 50.72%. For other midpoints, indirect processes dominate the influences. Meanwhile, COD, BOD5, CO2, TP, Cr (VI), Ti, Hg, and As are key contributors. Finally, reusing sludge by direct burning in the recovery furnace, reclaiming organic compounds in black liquor before alkali recycling, and integrating black liquor gasification technology are expected to provide substantial environmental benefits. Amelioration of wastewater treatment, optimization of the national energy structure, and improvement of the efficiency of chemicals and freshwater are recommended.