标题：Low molecular weight xanthan gum suppresses oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in rabbit chondrocytes
作者：Chen, Qixin; Shao, Xintian; Ling, Peixue; Liu, Fei; Shao, Huarong; Ma, Aibin; Wu, Jixu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Fuyan; Han, Guanying; Wan 更多 作者机构：[Chen, Qixin; Ling, Peixue; Liu, Fei; Ma, Aibin; Wu, Jixu; Liu, Fuyan; Wang, Fengshan] Shandong Univ, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Jinan 250101, Shangdong Prov 更多
通讯作者地址：[Ling, PX; Wang, FS]Shandong Univ, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Jinan 250101, Shangdong Provi, Peoples R China;[Han, GY]Jinzhou Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 1, Ji 更多
关键词：Xanthan gum; Low molecular weight; Oxidative stress; Chondrocytes;; Apoptosis
摘要：We have previously reported the application of low molecular weight XG(LM-XG), with molecular weights ranging from 1 x 10(6) Da to 1.5 x 10(6) Da for treating osteoarthritis. In this study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic activity of LM-XG under oxidative stress conditions, activated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -treated chondrocytes in vitro. Chondrocytes were pretreated with various doses of LM-XG (0,10, 100, 500, or 1000 mu g/mL) or 1000 mu g/mL sodium hyaluronate for 12 h, and then exposed to 0.5 mmol/L H2O2 for another 12 h. After treatment, chondrocyte viability was evaluated using a cell counting kit-8; DNA fragmentation was detected using Hoechst33258 staining; the percentage of DNA fragmentation was evaluated using the diphenylamine DNA assay kit; the apoptosis rate was evaluated using flow cytometry; chondrocyte ultra -microscopic morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy; intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were observed and quantified using 2,7-dichlorofuorescin diacetate, mitochondrial permeability transition analysis was performed using MitoTracker Red CMXRos and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining; and finally, caspase-3 activity was detected by western blot. The results showed that, compared with H2O2 -treated chondrocytes, LM-XG improved cell viability, decreased the percentage of DNA fragmentation, reduced the apoptosis rate, decreased the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial permeability transition, reverted the morphological damage, and downregulated cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results demonstrate that LM-XG has anti-apoptotic activity in H2O2 -treated chondrocytes. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.