标题：Exosomes mediate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission and NK-cell dysfunction
作者：Yang, Yinli; Han, Qiuju; Hou, Zhaohua; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian
作者机构：[Yang Yinli] Institute of Immunopharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China.;[Han Q 更多
通讯作者地址：[Zhang, J]Shandong Univ, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, Inst Immunopharmaceut Sci, 44 Wenhua West Rd, Jinan 250012, Peoples R China.
关键词：CHB; dysfunction; exosome; HBV; NK cells
摘要：Evidence suggests that exosomes can transfer genetic material between cells. However, their roles in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remain unclear. Here, we report that exosomes present in the sera of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients contained both HBV nucleic acids and HBV proteins, and transferred HBV to hepatocytes in an active manner. Notably, HBV nucleic acids were detected in natural killer (NK) cells from both CHB patients and healthy donors after exposure to HBV-positive exosomes. Through real-time fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3', 3',-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine, 4-chlorobenzenesulfnate salt (DiD)-labeled exosomes were observed to interact with NK cells and to be taken up by NK cells, which was enhanced by transforming growth factor-beta treatment. Furthermore, HBV-positive exosomes impaired NK-cell functions, including interferon (IFN)-gamma production, cytolytic activity, NK-cell proliferation and survival, as well as the responsiveness of the cells to poly (I: C) stimulation. HBV infection suppressed the expression of pattern-recognition receptors, especially retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), on NK cells, resulting in the dampening of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Our results highlight a previously unappreciated role of exosomes in HBV transmission and NK-cell dysfunction during CHB infection. Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2017) published online 30 May 2016