标题：Formation of waveguides in LiNbO3 by 6.0 MeV F3+ implantation
作者：Jia, Chuan-Lei ;Jiang, Yi ;Wang, Xue-Lin ;Chen, Feng ;Wang, Lei ;Jiao, Yang ;Wang, Ke-Ming ;Lu, Fei ;Shen, Ding-Yu ;Ma, Hong-Ji ;Nie, Rui
作者机构：[Jia, Chuan-Lei ;Jiang, Yi ;Wang, Xue-Lin ;Chen, Feng ;Wang, Lei ;Jiao, Yang ;Wang, Ke-Ming ] Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 更多
来源：Journal of Applied Physics
摘要：6.0 MeV F3+ ions are implanted into x-cut LiNbO3 crystals in doses ranging from 3.0 × 1013 to 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Planar waveguide formations are confirmed and dark modes are measured by prism coupling technique with a wavelength of 633 nm. TE modes due to both raised extraordinary index and barrier-confined waveguides are demonstrated. The Rutherford backscattering/channeling technique is used to investigate the damage produced by implantation. The experimental results are analyzed. With a fiber probe technique, the waveguide loss from TE0 mode in sample implanted with the dose of 1.0 × 1014 ions/cm2 is measured which is about 0.76 dB/cm after annealing. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.