标题：Identification of Genes Associated With Hirschsprung Disease, Based on Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis, and Potential Effects on Enteric Nervous System Development
作者：Tang, Clara Sze-man; Li, Peng; Lai, Frank Pui-Ling; Fu, Alexander Xi; Lau, Sin-Ting; So, Man Ting; Lui, Kathy Nga-Chu; Li, Zhixin; Zhu 更多 作者机构：[Tang, Clara Sze-man; Li, Peng; Lai, Frank Pui-Ling; Lau, Sin-Ting; So, Man Ting; Lui, Kathy Nga-Chu; Li, Zhixin; Zhuang, Xuehan; Yu, Michelle; Tam, P 更多
通讯作者：GarciaBarcelo, MM;Ngan, ESW
通讯作者地址：[GarciaBarcelo, MM; Ngan, ESW]Univ Hong Kong, Dept Surg, Fac Med Bldg,21 Sassoon Rd, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
关键词：Genetics; Amyloid Beta; Enteric Nervous System; CRISPR/Cas9
摘要：BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hirschsprung disease, or congenital aganglionosis, is believed to be oligogenic-that is, caused by multiple genetic factors. We performed whole-genome sequence analyses of patients with Hirschsprung disease to identify genetic factors that contribute to disease development and analyzed the functional effects of these variants. METHODS: We performed whole-genome sequence analyses of 443 patients with short-segment disease, recruited from hospitals in China and Vietnam, and 493 ethnically matched individuals without Hirschsprung disease (controls). We performed genome-wide association analyses and gene-based rare-variant burden tests to identify rare and common disease-associated variants and study their interactions. We obtained induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from 4 patients with Hirschsprung disease and 2 control individuals, and we used these to generate enteric neural crest cells for transcriptomic analyses. We assessed the neuronal lineage differentiation capability of iPSC-derived enteric neural crest cells using an in vitro differentiation assay. RESULTS: We identified 4 susceptibility loci, including 1 in the phospholipase D1 gene (PLD1) (P = 7.4 x 10(-7)). The patients had a significant excess of rare protein-altering variants in genes previously associated with Hirschsprung disease and in the beta-secretase 2 gene (BACE2) (P = 2.9 x 10(-6)). The epistatic effects of common and rare variants across these loci provided a sensitized background that increased risk for the disease. In studies of the iPSCs, we observed common and distinct pathways associated with variants in RET that affect risk. In functional assays, we found variants in BACE2 to protect enteric neurons from apoptosis. We propose that alterations in BACE1 signaling via amyloid beta precursor protein and BACE2 contribute to pathogenesis of Hirschsprung disease. CONCLUSIONS: In whole-genome sequence analyses of patients with Hirschsprung disease, we identified rare and common variants associated with disease risk. Using iPSC cells, we discovered some functional effects of these variants.