标题：Comparisons of methods to obtain insoluble particles in snow for transmission electron microscopy
作者：Ren, Yong; Zhang, Xiongfei; Wei, Hailun; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Jiaxing; Wang, Xin; Li, Weijun
作者机构：[Ren, Yong; Wei, Hailun; Wang, Xin] Lanzhou Univ, Coll Atmospher Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Semi Arid Climate Change, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, Peoples R 更多
通讯作者地址：[Wang, X]Lanzhou Univ, Coll Atmospher Sci, Minist Educ, Key Lab Semi Arid Climate Change, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, Peoples R China;[Li, WJ]Shandong Univ 更多
关键词：Snow; Transmission electron microscopy; Tangential flow filtration and; dilution; Ice nuclei
摘要：Most studies of insoluble particles in snow have been focused on their mass concentration. Little is understood about the physicochemical properties of individual insoluble particles in snow. However, the information is essential to trace sources of the particles, to understand ice nuclei, and to quantify critical aerosol particles (e.g., black carbon) in snow analyzed by bulk methods. The lack of individual particle analyses of snow meltwater stems from the difficulty of producing feasible samples of the snow-borne insoluble particles. In this study, we examined six sample preparation methods and compared their results using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results are the following: (1) Drop-by-drop method (DDM) is the easiest method to make TEM samples but cannot remove the influence of the dissolved substances in snow meltwater. (2) Direct filtration method (DFM) was infeasible because the water penetration of carbon film on copper TEM grids is low. (3) Filtration and transfer method (FTM) is through using ultrasonication to transfer insoluble particles on the nuclepore polycarbonate membranes to TEM grids. The drawback of this method is that ultrasonication breaks individual particles into fragments. (4) Freeze-drying method (FDM) can result in new particles from the drying dissolved substances, which interferes with the identification of insoluble particles. (5) Dilution-gravity separation method (DGM) can obtain different substances based on their specific gravity in long standing water. The method can effectively reduce soluble substances but lose insoluble carbonaceous particles (e.g., soot and organic particles). (6) Tangential flow filtration and dilution (TFF-D) through concentrating and desalting dissolved substances is to remove the dissolved substances but keep insoluble particles in snow meltwater. The TFF-D method not only can be suitable for electron microscopy to study individual insoluble particles in snow meltwater but also for any offline microscopic observation such as Raman spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.