标题：Avoiding Data Inconsistency in Energy Harvesting Powered Embedded Systems
作者：Xie, Mimi; Pan, Chen; Zhao, Mengying; Liu, Yongpan; Xue, Chun Jason; Hu, Jingtong
作者机构：[Xie, Mimi; Pan, Chen; Hu, Jingtong] Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA.; [Zhao, Mengying] Shandong Univ, Sch Comp Sci 更多
通讯作者地址：[Xie, MM]Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA.
来源：ACM TRANSACTIONS ON DESIGN AUTOMATION OF ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
关键词：Energy harvesting; inconsistency; adaptive checkpointing
摘要：Energy harvesting is becoming a favorable alternative to power future generation embedded systems, as it is more environmentally and user friendly. However, energy harvesting powered embedded systems suffer from frequent execution interruption due to unstable energy supply. To tackle this problem, nonvolatile memory has been deployed to save the whole volatile state for computation. When power resumes, the processor can restore the state back to volatile memories and continue execution. However, without careful consideration, the process of checkpointing and resuming could cause inconsistency between volatile and nonvolatile memories, which leads to irreversible errors. In this article, we propose a consistency-aware adaptive check-pointing scheme that ensures correctness for all checkpoints. The proposed technique efficiently identifies all possible inconsistency positions in programs and inserts auxiliary code to ensure correctness by offline analysis. In addition, adaptive checkpointing assisted register file profiling and online tracking techniques further reduce the overhead of each checkpoint. Evaluation results show that the proposed checkpointing strategy can successfully eliminate inconsistency errors and greatly reduce the checkpointing overhead.