标题：Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond- laser micromachining
作者：Chen, Feng; Vazquez de Aldana, J. R.
作者机构：[Chen, Feng] Shandong Univ, State Key Lab Crystal Mat, Sch Phys, Minist Educ, Jinan 250100, Peoples R China.; [Chen, Feng] Shandong Univ, Key Lab Pa 更多
通讯作者地址：[Chen, F]Shandong Univ, State Key Lab Crystal Mat, Sch Phys, Minist Educ, Jinan 250100, Peoples R China.
来源：LASER & PHOTONICS REVIEWS
关键词：Optical waveguides; femtosecond-laser micromachining; ultrafast laser; inscription; optical crystals and ceramics; waveguide lasers; frequency; converters; electro-optic modulators
摘要：Femtosecond-laser micromachining (also known as inscription or writing) has been developed as one of the most efficient techniques for direct three-dimensional microfabrication of transparent optical materials. In integrated photonics, by using direct writing of femtosecond/ultrafast laser pulses, optical waveguides can be produced in a wide variety of optical materials. With diverse parameters, the formed waveguides may possess different configurations. This paper focuses on crystalline dielectric materials, and is a review of the state-of-the-art in the fabrication, characterization and applications of femtosecond-laser micromachined waveguiding structures in optical crystals and ceramics. A brief outlook is presented by focusing on a few potential spotlights.