标题：Distributed Range-free Localization Algorithm for 3D Wireless Sensor Networks under Irregular Radio Propagation Model
作者：Xing, Jianping; Wang, Dehua; Liu, Yang
作者机构：[Xing, Jianping; Wang, Dehua; Liu, Yang] Shandong Univ, Sch Informat Sci & Engn, Jinan 250100, Peoples R China.
会议名称：3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Industrial Application (PACIIA2010)
会议日期：DEC 04-05, 2010
来源：2010 THE 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION (PACIIA2010), VOL I
关键词：wireless sensor network; three-dimensional localization; range-free;; Degree of Irregularity; grid-based representation
摘要：This paper presents a novel Distributed Range free Localization Algorithm(3D-DRL) for three-dimensional wireless sensor networks under irregular radio propagation environment. In the scheme, the sensing space is divided into cubic cells with resolution a and each anchor, equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS), votes for each cubic cell. Each unknown node averages the COG (center of the gravity) of cells with highest votes as its estimated location. The scheme eliminates the requirement for specific positioning hardware, avoids the need for any interaction between the individual unknown nodes, and is independent of node densities and network topologies. Simulation results indicate that the average localization error is below 3 meters, when DOI(Degree of Irregularity)=0.1, ANR(Anchor to Node Range Ratio)=2.5 and all nodes are randomly deployed in 100x100x100 m3 scenarios. Especially, all unknown nodes can localize themselves by adjusting ANR.