标题：Liquid biopsy: a step forward towards precision medicine in urologic malignancies
作者：Di Meo, Ashley; Bartlett, Jenni; Cheng, Yufeng; Pasic, Maria D.; Yousef, George M.
作者机构：[Di Meo, Ashley; Bartlett, Jenni; Pasic, Maria D.; Yousef, George M.] Univ Toronto, Dept Lab Med & Pathobiol, Toronto, ON, Canada.; [Di Meo, Ashley; 更多
通讯作者：Yousef, GM;Yousef, GM
通讯作者地址：[Yousef, GM]Univ Toronto, Dept Lab Med & Pathobiol, Toronto, ON, Canada;[Yousef, GM]St Michaels Hosp, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Inst, Dept Lab Med, Keenan 更多
关键词：Precision medicine; Personalized medicine; Kidney cancer; Bladder; cancer; Prostate cancer; Liquid biopsy; Cell-free DNA; Circulating tumor; DNA; Circulating tumor cells; Exosomse; Tumor markers; miRNAs; Long; non-coding RNA; Biomarkers; Cancer treatment; Predictive markers
摘要：There is a growing trend towards exploring the use of a minimally invasive "liquid biopsy" to identify biomarkers in a number of cancers, including urologic malignancies. Multiple aspects can be assessed in circulating cell-free DNA, including cell-free DNA levels, integrity, methylation and mutations. Other prospective liquid biopsy markers include circulating tumor cells, circulating RNAs (miRNA, lncRNAs and mRNAs), cell-free proteins, peptides and exosomes have also emerged as non-invasive cancer biomarkers. These circulating molecules can be detected in various biological fluids, including blood, urine, saliva and seminal plasma. Liquid biopsies hold great promise for personalized medicine due to their ability to provide multiple non-invasive global snapshots of the primary and metastatic tumors. Molecular profiling of circulating molecules has been a stepping-stone to the successful introduction of several non-invasive multi-marker tests into the clinic. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of cell-free DNA-based kidney, prostate and bladder cancer biomarker research and discuss the potential utility other circulating molecules. We will also discuss the challenges and limitations facing non-invasive cancer biomarker discovery and the benefits of this growing area of translational research.