标题：MicroRNAs and prostate cancer
作者：Pang, Yingxin; Young, Charles Y. F.; Yuan, Huiqing
作者机构：[Pang Yingxin] Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China.;[Yuan Huiqing] 更多
通讯作者地址：[Yuan, HQ]Shandong Univ, Inst Biochem & Mol Biol, Sch Med, Jinan 250012, Peoples R China.
来源：ACTA BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA SINICA
关键词：microRNA; prostate cancer; oncogene; tumor suppressor; biomarker
摘要：MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by mainly binding to 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated that aberrant expressions of miRNAs are closely associated with the development, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of various cancers including prostate cancer (PCa). The proposed molecular mechanisms that underlie the aberrant expression of miRNAs result from gene changes, epigenetic modification and alteration of Dicer abundance. Although up to 50 miRNAs have been reported to be significantly expressed in human PCa, only a small number of them were experimentally shown to make contribution to the pathogenesis of PCa. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of several known miRNAs, summarize recent studies on the relevance of altered expression of oncogenic miRNAs (e.g. miR-221/-222, miR-21, and miR-125b) and tumor suppressor miRNAs (e.g. miR-101, miR-126*, miR-146a, miR-330, miR-34 cluster, and miR-200 family) for PCa. Additionally, their potential clinical applications and prospects in PCa, such as biomarkers and clinical therapies, are also briefly discussed.